Anti-mari yekubvisa mari uye yekurwisa-gandanga mari mari muNetherlands uye muUkraine

ziviso

Munharaunda yedu inokasira kuenda kudhijitari, njodzi dzekutarisira mari uye mari yemagandanga dzinowedzera. Kumasangano zvakakosha kuziva nezve njodzi idzi. Masangano anofanirwa kuve akakwana kwazvo achitevedzera. MuNetherlands, izvi zvinonyanya kushanda kumasangano ari pasi pezvisungo zvinowanikwa kubva kumutemo weDutch pamusoro pekudzivirira kubira mari uye hupfumi hwemagandanga (Wwft). Izvi zvisungo zvakaiswa kuitira kuti vaone uye kurwisa kubvisirwa mari uye mari yemagandanga. Kuti uwane rumwe ruzivo nezvezvisungo zvinobva pamutemo uyu, tinoreva chinyorwa chedu chakapfuura 'Kuteedzerana muDutch mutemo chikamu'. Kana masangano emari akasaenderana nezvisungo izvi, izvi zvinogona kuva nemhedzisiro yakaipa. Uchapupu hweizvi hunoratidzwa mumutongo wazvino weDutch Commission weKukwikwidza kwebhizinesi neindasitiri (17 Ndira 2018, ECLI: NL: CBB: 2018: 6).

Kutongwa kweDutch Commission yekukwirira kwebhizinesi neindasitiri

Iyi nyaya ndeye yekambani yekutenda iyo inopa mabasa ekuvimba kune echisikigo vanhu uye emutemo masangano. Iyo trust kambani yakamupa masevhisi kune munhu wechisikigo aive neminda yezvivakwa muUkraine (munhu A). The real estate yaikosha USD zviuru gumi. Munhu A rakaburitswa zvitupa zvepfuma yekutengesa kune repamutemo bhizinesi (chombo B). Iwo masheya echikamu B akaitwa nemuridzi wezvehumwe hwekuUkraine nyika (munhu C). Naizvozvo, munhu C ndiye aive muridzi wekupedzisira mubatsiri weiyo real estate portfolio. Pane imwe nhambo, munhu C akaendesa migawo yake kune mumwe munhu (munhu D). Munhu C haana kugashira chero chinhu mukudzosera kune aya ma share, akaendeswa kune munhu D mahara. Munhu A akazivisa iyo trust kambani nezve kuendeswa kwemahara uye yekambani yekuvimbika yakagadzwa munhu D semumwe mutsva wekupedzisira anowana muridzi wezvivakwa. Mwedzi mishoma gare gare, iyo kambani yekuvimba yakazivisa iyo Dollar Yekuongorora Kwemari nezvekuchinja kwakati wandei, kusanganisira kuiswa kwemahara akambotaurwa. Apa ndipo pakamuka matambudziko. Mushure mekuudzwa nezvekutamiswa kwekugoverwa kwekugoverwa kubva kumunhu C kuenda kumunhu D, iyo Dollar National Bank yakabhadhara faindi yeEUR 10,000,000 kukambani yekuvimba. Chikonzero cheichi chaive kutadza kutevedzera iyo Wwft. Sekureva kweDutch National Bank, iyo kambani yekuvimba inofanirwa kunge yakafungidzira kuti kuendesa migawo kunokwanisa kunge kuchisanganiswa nekubvisirwa mari kana kubhadharisa mari yemagandanga, sezvo magawo acho akaendeswa pasina muripo asi iyo real estate portfolio yaikosha mari yakawanda. Naizvozvo, kambani yekuvimba inofanira kunge yakataura nezvekutengeserana uku mukati memazuva gumi nemana, iyo inotorwa kubva kuWwft. Mhosva iyi inowanzo kurangwa nemubhadharo weEUR 40,000. Nekudaro, yeDutch National Bank yakamhan'ara faindi iyi kusvika kuEUR 500,000 nekuda kwechikanganiso uye nhoroondo yeyekambani yekuvimba.

Kambani yeTrust yakaendesa nyaya yacho kudare nekuti yakatenda kuti faindi yacho yakaiswa zvisiri pamutemo. Kambani yekuvimba yakataura kuti kutengeserana kwacho kwaisava kutengeserana sezvakatsanangurwa muWwft, sezvo kutengeserana kwacho kwaifungidzirwa kuti hakusi kwekutengesa pachinzvimbo chomunhu A. Zvisinei, Commission inofunga zvimwe. Iko kuumbwa pakati pemunhu A, chombo B uye munhu C kwakavakirwa kuitira kuti pasave nekuunganidzwa kwemutero kubva kuhurumende yeUkraine. Munhu A akaita basa rakakosha mukuvaka uku. Uyezve, muridzi wekupedzisira anobatsira wezvezvivakwa akashandurwa nekutamisa iwo magawo kubva kumunhu C kuenda kumunhu D. Izvi zvakabatanidzawo shanduko munzvimbo yemunhu A, sezvo munhu A anga asisabatiri zvivakwa zvemunhu C asi munhu ..Munhu A ainyatsobatanidzwa nekutengeserana uye saka kutengeserana kwacho kwaimiririra munhu A. Sezvo munhu A ari mutengi wekambani yekuvimba, kambani yekuvimba inofanira kunge yakataura nezvayo. Uyezve, Commission yakataura kuti kuendesa migawo chiitiko chisingaenzaniswi. Izvi zvirimo muchokwadi chekuti shavha dzakatamiswa pasina mubhadharo, nepo kukosha kweimba yacho kuchimiririra USD zviuru gumi. Zvakare, kukosha kweimba yezvivakwa kwaishamisa mukubatana nezvimwe zvinhu zvemunhu C. Pakupedzisira, mumwe wevatariri vehofisi yekuvimba akataura kuti kutengeserana uku 'kwaive kusingawanzoitika', iyo inobvuma kushamisa kwekutengeserana. Shambadziro saka inomutsa kufungidzira kwekubira mari kana mari yemagandanga uye yaifanirwa kunge yakarehwa pasina kunonoka. Saka faindi yakaiswa pamutemo.

Kutonga kwese kunowanikwa kuburikidza neiyi link.

Anti-mari kubvisirwa uye counter-gandanga mari mari muUkraine

Mhosva yakataurwa pamusoro inoratidza kuti kambani yeDutch trust inogona kubhadhariswa mari yekutengesa yakaitika muUkraine. Mutemo weDutch saka unogona kushandawo kumasangano anoshanda kune dzimwe nyika, chero bedzi paine kubatana neNetherlands. Netherlands yakashandisa matanho akati kuti awone uye kurwisa kupomha mari uye mari yemagandanga. Kune vemaUkraine masangano anoda kushanda mukati meNetherlands kana kuti vekuUkraine mabhizinesi anoda kutanga bhizinesi muNetherlands, kutevedzera mutemo weDutch kunogona kuve kwakaoma. Izvi zvinokonzeresa nenyaya yekuti Ukraine ine nzira dzakasiyana dzekubata mari nekubvisa mari yemagandanga uye haisati yashandisa matanho akanyanya seane Netherlands. Nekudaro, kurwisa anti-mariadi uye mari yemagandanga yave iri nyaya inonyanya kukosha muUkraine. Izvo zvazoita musoro chaiwo, kuti Council yeEurope yakafunga kutanga kuongorora mari yekubvisa mari uye hupfumi hwemagandanga muUkraine.

Muna 2017, Council of Europe yakaita ongororo yekudzivirira mari-yekupamba uye yekurwisa-magandanga emari mari muUkraine. Ongororo iyi yakaitwa nekomisheni yakasarudzika, iyo Dare reVanoona nezvekuvandudzwa kweAnti-Money Laundering Measure uye Kupedzisa kweUhushushi (MARIYVAL). Komiti iyi yakaratidza chirevo chezvavakawana muna Zvita 2017. Chirevo ichi chinopa pfupiso yezvemari-yekubiridzira mari pamwe neanopikisa gandanga emari nzira munzvimbo muUkraine. Iyo inoongorora mwero wekuteerera neMari Yekuita Task Force makumi mana Kurudziro uye huwandu hwebudiriro yeAkraine yekudzivirira mari kurwisa uye inopesana nehugandanga mari mari system. Chirevo ichi chinopa zvakare kurudziro pamusoro pekuti chirongwa chinogona kusimbiswa sei.

Key dzakawanikwa dzekuongorora

Komiti yakarondedzera zvakawanikwa zvakawanikwa zvakauya pamberi pakuferefeta, zvakapfupiswa pazasi:

  • Uori hunoisa panjodzi huru nenyaya yekudyara mari muUkraine. Uori hunopa huwandu hwakakura hwezviitiko zvematsotsi uye hunokanganisa kushanda kwemasangano ehurumende uye hurongwa hwekutongwa kwemhosva. Vakuru vanoziva nezve njodzi dzinowanikwa nehuwori uye vari kuita matanho ekuderedza njodzi idzi. Nekudaro, mutemo wekutarisawo chinangwa chekutarisa hukama hwakabatana nehuwori mari ichangotanga.
  • Ukraine ine nzwisisika inonzwisisika yekudyara mari uye yekutyisa mari yekutyisa njodzi. Nekudaro, kunzwisisa nezve njodzi idzi kunogona kuvandudzwa mune dzimwe nzvimbo, sekuyambuka njodzi, iyo isiri purofiti chikamu uye vanhu vepamutemo. Ukraine ine hwakapararira nyika kubatana uye mitemo kugadzira nzira kugadzirisa izvi njodzi, izvo zvine maitiro akanaka. Bhizimusi rekunyepedzera, hupfumi hwemumvuri uye kushandiswa kwemari kuchiri kuda kugadziriswa, sezvo vachiisa njodzi huru yekudyara mari.
  • Iyo yeUkraine yezvehupfumi Intelligence Unit (UFIU) inogadzira huchenjeri hwemari hweakakwira kuraira. Izvi zvinogara zvichikonzera kuongororwa. Masangano anotsigira mutemo anotsvakawo huchenjeri kubva kuUFIU kuti vatsigire zvavanoedza kuita. Nekudaro, iyo IT system yeUFIU iri kuita yechinyakare uye huwandu hwevashandi havakwanisi kurarama nebasa rakakura. Zvakangodaro, Ukraine yakatora matanho ekuenderera mberi nekuvandudza mhando yekubika.
  • Kubvisirwa mari muUkraine kuchiri kungoonekwa sekuwedzera kune mamwe mabasa ematsotsi. Zvaifungidzirwa kuti kubvisirwa mari kunogona kungoendeswa kudare mushure mekutongerwa mhosva yekutanga. Iwo mutsara wekutambisa mari zvakare wakaderera pane wekukanganisa. Vakuru veUkraine munguva pfupi yapfuura vakatanga kutora matanho kuti vatore imwe mari. Nekudaro, matanho aya haaite seanoshandiswa nguva dzose.
  • Kubva muna 2014 Ukraine yakanyanya kutarisana nemhedzisiro yehugandanga hwepasi rose. Izvi zvainyanya kuitika nekuda kwekutyisidzira kweIslam State (IS). Kuferefeta kwemari kunoitwa pamwe chete nekuferefetwa kwakabatana nehugandanga. Kunyangwe zvikamu zvechirongwa chinoshanda zvichiratidzwa, chimiro chemutemo hachisati chakanyatsoenderana nemabatiro epasi rose.
  • Iyo National Bank yeUkraine (NBU) ine nzwisiso yakanaka yengozi uye inoshandisa yakaringana-njodzi-yakavakirwa nzira yekutarisirwa kwemabhangi. Kuedza kukuru kwakaitwa kuitira kuve nechokwadi chekubuda pachena uye mukubvisa matsotsi mukutonga kwemabhangi. Iyo NBU yakashandisa zvakasiyana-siyana zvezvirango kumabhangi. Izvi zvakaguma nekushandiswa kwakaringana kwekudzivirira matanho. Nekudaro, zvimwe zviremera zvinoda kuvandudzwa kwakakosha mukuita mabasa avo uye kushandisa matanho ekudzivirira.
  • Ruzhinji rwemasangano akazvimiririra muUkraine vanovimba neHwakabatana Nyika Nyoresa kuti vazivise muridzi anobatsira mutengi wavo. Nekudaro, iyo Registrar haina chokwadi chekuti ruzivo rwakapiwa kwariri nevanhu vepamutemo rwuri chokwadi kana zvazvino. Izvi zvinoonekwa sedambudziko.
  • Ukraine yakave yakawanda proactive mukupa uye kutsvaga kubatsirana kwezvemitemo rubatsiro. Nekudaro, nyaya dzakadai sekuisirwa mari dzine chekuita nekubudirira kweari kubvumirana pamutemo rubatsiro. Kugona kweUkraine kupa rubatsiro zvakare kwakakanganiswa nekusavhenekerwa kuri pachena kwevanhu vari pamutemo.

Mhedzisiro yemushumo

Kubva pane izvo mushumo, zvinogona kugumiswa kuti Ukraine inotarisana nekukosha kwemari njodzi. Uori uye zviitiko zvisiri pamutemo zvehupfumi ndizvo zvakakurisa kutengesa mari. Cash kutenderera muUkraine yakakwira uye inowedzera mumvuri upfumi muUkraine. Iyi hupfumi hwemumvuri inokanganisa zvakanyanya hurongwa hwezvemari nekusachengeteka kwehupfumi hwenyika. Nezve njodzi yemari yemagandanga, Ukraine inoshandiswa senyika yekufambisa kune avo vari kutsvaga kubatana ne IS varwi muSyria. Iyo-non-profit sector iri panjodzi yekushandiswa mari yemagandanga. Ichi chikamu chakashandiswa zvisirizvo kuendesa mari kune magandanga nemasangano emagandanga.

Nekudaro, Ukraine yakatora matanho kuitira kuti kurwisa kubvisirwa mari uye mari yemagandanga. Mutemo mutsva wekudzivirira mari / kupikisa-magandanga emari wekutonga wakatorwa muna 2014. Mutemo uyu unoda kuti zviremera zviongorore njodzi kuitira kuti vaone njodzi uye vatsanangure matanho ekudzivirira njodzi idzi. Kugadziriswa kwakaitwazve muCode of Criminal Procedure neCriminal Code. Uyezve, zviremera zveUkraine zvine nzwisiso yakakura yengozi uye zvinoshanda mumubatanidzwa wemumba kurwisa kubvisirwa mari uye mari yemagandanga.

Ukraine yakatotora matanho makuru kuti irwisane nekubirwa mari uye mari yemagandanga. Kunyange zvakadaro, pane mukana wekuvandudza. Mimwe zvikanganiso uye kusagadzikana zvinoramba zviri muUkraine hwekutevedza maitiro. Iyi danho inofanirwawo kuunzwa zvichiteerana nemaonero epasi rese. Uyezve, kudhiridzira mari kunofanirwa kutaridzirwa sechaipomerwa mhosva, kwete sekuwedzera kwechimwe chiitiko chepari mhosva. Izvi zvichaguma nekuwedzera kupomerwa uye mhosva. Kuferefeta kwemari kunofanirwa kutorwa nguva nenguva uye ongororo uye kunyorwa kwakanyorwa kwekubira mari uye njodzi dzemari dzemagandanga dzinofanirwa kuvandudzwa. Izvi zviito zvinofungidzirwa kuve zvekutanga pamberi pezviitiko zveUkraine nezvekudyara mari uye mari yemagandanga.

Chirevo chose chinowanikwa kuburikidza neiyi link.

mhedziso

Kubvisirwa mari uye kutsigira mari yemagandanga zvine njodzi huru kunharaunda yedu. Naizvozvo, idzi misoro dzinotariswa pasi rese. Netherlands yakatoita zvimwe zviyero kuitira kuti vaone uye kurwisa kubvisirwa mari uye mari yemagandanga. Matanho aya haakoshe kune masangano eDutch chete, asi anogona kushandawo kumakambani ane mativi-ekuyambuka mabasa. Iyo Wwft inoshanda kana paine chinobatana neNetherlands, sezviri kuratidzwa mumutongo wakataurwa pamusoro. Kune masangano anowira pasi peiyo Wwft, zvakakosha kuziva kuti vatengi avo ndivanaani, kuitira kuti vatevedze mutemo weDutch. zvandinovimbisa Izvi zvinogona anoshandawo kuUkraine masangano. Izvi zvinogona kuzove zvakaoma, sezvo Ukraine isati yaita zvakakura kudaro kurwisa mari-kurwisa nekupikisa-gandanga mari yekurwisa matanho sezvakaita Netherlands.

Nekudaro, chirevo cheMARIYVAL chinoratidza kuti Ukraine iri kutora matanho kuitira kurwisa kupomhodza mari pamwe nemari yemagandanga. Ukraine ine nzwisiso yakakura yekubvisirwa mari uye hupfumi hwemagandanga njodzi, ino inhanho yekutanga yakakosha. Asi, iyo mutemo wepamutemo uchine zvimwe zvikanganiso uye kusagadzikana izvo zvinoda kugadziriswa. Iko kushandiswa kwakapararira kwemari muUkraine uye inoenda yakakura mumvuri upfumi ndiyo inotyisidzira kukuru munharaunda yeUkraine. Ukraine yakanyatsochengetera kufambira mberi mumabasa ayo ekurwisa mari-inopesana nekurwisa mari yekurwisa, asi pachine mukana wekuvandudza. Maitiro emutemo weNetherlands neUkraine zvishoma nezvishoma anokura pedyo nepedyo, izvo zvichazoita kuti zvive nyore kumapato eDutch neUkraine kubatana. Kusvika panguva iyoyo, zvakakosha kuti mapato akadaro ave nekuziva madanho emutemo echiDutch neUkraine uye zviitiko zvechokwadi, kuitira kuti vatevedzere kurwisa mari-kuromba nekurwisa-magandanga emari yekuita mari.

mugove