Cryptocurrency: ziva njodzi dzekutevera

ziviso

Munharaunda yedu inochinja nekukurumidza, cryptocurrency inowedzera kuve yakakurumbira. Parizvino, kune akawanda marudzi e cryptocurrency, akadai seBitcoin, Ethereum, uye Litecoin. Cryptocurrencies ndeye chete digital, uye iyo mari uye tekinoroji inochengetedzwa zvakachengeteka nekushandisa blockchain tekinoroji. Iyi tekinoroji inochengetedza rekodhi yakachengeteka yekutengeserana kwega kwega munzvimbo imwechete. Hapana anodzora blockchain sezvo maketani aya akaiswa pamakomputa ega ega ane cryptocurrency chikwama. Tekinoroji yeBlockchain zvakare inopawo kusazivikanwa kwevashandisi ve cryptocurrency. Iko kushaiwa kwekudzora uye kusazivikanwa kwevashandisi kunogona kuisa dzimwe njodzi kune vemabhizinesi vanoda kushandisa cryptocurrency mukambani yavo. Chinyorwa ichi kuenderera kwechinyorwa chedu chakapfuura, 'Cryptocurrency: izvo zvepamutemo zvikamu zvetekinoroji yekuchinja'. Ipo ichi chinyorwa chapfuura chainyanya kusvika kune zvakajairwa nemutemo we cryptocurrency, chinyorwa ichi chinotarisa panjodzi varidzi vebhizinesi vanogona kutarisana navo mukubata ne cryptocurrency uye kukosha kwekuteerera.

Njodzi yekufungidzirwa kwekutora mari

Ipo mukurumbira we cryptocurrency uchiwana mukurumbira, ichiri chisina kunyorwa muNetherlands uye nedzimwe Europe. Iwo maParamende ari kushanda mukushandisa zvakadzama mirau, asi ichi chichava chiitiko chakareba. Nekudaro, matare emunyika maDutch akatopfuura mutongo wakati wandei mumatare ane mhosva ye cryptocurrency. Kunyangwe zvisarudzo zvishoma zvaibataisa chimiro chepamutemo cheiyo cryptocurrency, mhaka zhinji dzaive mukati mekuparwa kwemhosva. Kubvisirwa mari kwaiita chikamu chikuru mukutonga uku.

Kubvisirwa mari chimwe chinhu chinofanira kuverengerwa kuve nechokwadi chekuti sangano rako harisi kuwira pasi pechikamu cheDutch Criminal Code. Kubvisirwa mari chiito chinorangwa pasi pemutemo weDutch. Izvi zvinosimbiswa muzvinyorwa 420bis, 420ter uye 420 yeDutch Criminal Code. Kubvisirwa mari kunobvumidzwa kana munhu akaviga chaicho hunhu, kwaakabva, ari mutorwa kana kudzingiswa kwechimwe chinhu chakanaka, kana akavanda uyo anowana mubairo kana iye akabata izvo zvakanaka achiziva kuti izvo zvakanaka zvinobva kumabasa ematsotsi. Kunyangwe kana munhu anga asiri kunyatsoziva nezve chokwadi kuti chakanaka chinobva pamabasa ematsotsi asi angadai akafungidzira kuti izvi ndizvo, anogona kuwanikwa aine mhosva yekubira mari. Mabasa aya anorangwa nekusungwa kusvika makore mana (nekuda kwekuziva kwayakatangira mhosva yacho), kusungwa kusvika pagore rimwe (nekuda kwekufungidzira zvine musoro) kana kubhadhariswa mari inosvika makumi matanhatu nemazana matanhatu emadhora. Izvi zvinosimbiswa muzvinyorwa 67.000 zveDutch Criminal Code. Munhu anoita tsika yekubvisirwa mari anogona kutoiswa mujeri kusvika makore matanhatu.

Pazasi pane mimwe mienzaniso mishoma maipindwa nedare reDutch pamusoro pekushandiswa kweiyo cryptocurrency:

  • Paive nenyaya yekuti munhu aipomerwa mhosva yekubira mari. Akagamuchira mari yakawanikwa nekushandura mabcocoins kuti ave fiat mari. Aya bitcoins akawanikwa kuburikidza neiyo yerima webhu, pane iyo IP-kero dzevashandisi dzakavanzika. Kuongorora kwakaratidza iyo yakasviba webhu inoshandiswa zvinongoda kutengesa zvisiri pamutemo zvinhu, izvo kuti ubhadharwe nema bitcoins. Naizvozvo, dare raifungidzira kuti marcoini anowanikwa kuburikidza neiyo rima webhu ndeyekubva kune mhosva. Dare rakati munhu aifungira akapihwa mari yakawanikwa nekushandura marcoins ematsotsi ari matsotsi emari. Iye aifungira aitoziva kuti macocoins anowanzo kuve ematsotsi. Kunyange zvakadaro, haana kuongorora mabviro emari ye fiat yaakawana. Naizvozvo, akabvuma achiziva mukana wakakosha uyo mari yaakawana yakawanikwa kuburikidza nemabasa asiri pamutemo. Akatongerwa mhosva yekuchera mari. [1]
  • Mune iyi kesi, iyo Fiscal Information uye Investigation Service (muchiDutch: FIOD) yakatanga kuongororwa kwevatengesi ve bitcoin. Anofungidzira, mune iyi kesi, akapa bitcoins kune vatengesi uye akavashandura kuti abate mari. Iye anofungidzira akashandisa wallet yepamhepo apa painge paine mari yakawanda yecocoins, iyo inotorwa kubva kune yakasviba webhu. Sezvataurwa mune nyaya iri pamusoro, idzi bitcoins dzinofungidzirwa kuti dzakabva pamutemo. Anofungidzirwa akaramba kupa kujekeswa kwakanangana nemavambo ematcocoins. Dare rakati mushanisi ainyatsoziva nezvekwakabvumirwa zvisiri pamutemo kwamaitcoins sezvo akaenda kune vatengesi vanovimbisa kusazivikanwa kwevatengi vavo uye kubvunza komisheni yepamusoro yebasa iri. Naizvozvo, dare rakati zvinangwa zvemusungwa zvinogona kufungidzirwa. Akatongerwa mhosva yekuchera mari. [2]
  • Mhosva inotevera inobata nebhangi reDutch, IN. ING yakapinda muchibvumirano chebhengi nemutengesi we bitcoin. Sebhangi, ING ine zvimwe zvekutarisisa uye zvekuferefeta zvisungo. Ivo vakawana mutengi wavo akashandisa mari yemari kutenga bitcoins dzechitatu mapato. NG vakapedza hukama hwavo kubva kwavakatanga kubhadhara muhomwe hakugone kuongororwa uye mari inogona kuwanikwa kuburikidza nemabasa asiri pamutemo. IN yakanzwa senge kuti ivo havachagone kuzadzikisa zvisungo zvavo zveKYC sezvo vaisakwanisa kuvimbisa kuti maakaunti avo aisashandiswa mukubira mari uye kudzivirira njodzi dzine chekuita nekuvimbika. Dare rakati mutengi weI haana kukwana mukubvumikisa kuti mari yemari yaivepo yakabviswa pamutemo. Naizvozvo, ING yakabvumirwa kupedza hukama hwebhangi. [3]

Iyi mitongo inoratidza kuti kushanda ne cryptocurrency kunogona kuisa njodzi kana zvasvika pakuteerana. Kana iyo mabviro eiyo cryptocurrency isingazivikanwe, uye iyo mari inogona kubva kune yakasviba webhu, kufungidzira kwekutora mari kunogona kusimuka nyore.

kutevedzera

Sezvo cryptocurrency isati yatombo gadziriswa uye kusazivikanwa mukutengeserana kunovimbiswa, inzira inoratidzika yekubhadhara inoshandiswa kune zviitiko zvetsotsi. Naizvozvo, cryptocurrency ine imwe mhando yekusataura zvisina kunaka muNetherlands. Izvi zvinoratidzwawo muchokwadi chekuti Dutch Financial Services neMarkets Authority inopa zano pamusoro pekutengeserana mumisika. Vanotaura kuti kushandisa cryptocurrencies kunoisa njodzi panjodzi dzehupfumi, sezvo kubvisirwa mari, hunyengeri, hunyengeri uye nekunyengedza zvinogona kubuda nyore. [4] Izvi zvinoreva kuti iwe unofanirwa kunge uchinge wakarurama kwazvo nekuteerera kana uchibata ne cryptocurrency. Iwe unofanirwa kuve unokwanisa kuratidza kuti iyo cryptocurrency iwe yaunogamuchira haina kuwanikwa kuburikidza zvisiri pamutemo zviitiko. Iwe unofanirwa kuve nekugona kuratidza kuti wakanyatsoferefeta kwakatangira kwakabva cryptocurrency iwe yawakagamuchira. Izvi zvinogona kuratidza kuti zvakaomera vanhu vanoshandisa cryptocurrency kazhinji havazivikanwe. Kazhinji kazhinji, kana dare reDutch riine mutongo une chekuita ne cryptocurrency, iri mukati mekuparwa kwemhosva. Panguva ino, zviremera hazvishande kutarisa kutengeserana mumakristcheni. Nekudaro, cryptocurrency ine yavo yekutarisa. Naizvozvo, kana kambani ine hukama ne cryptocurrency, zviremera zvichawedzera kungwarira. Vakuru vangangoda kuziva kuti iyo cryptocurrency inowanikwa sei uye kuti kutanga kwemari iri chii. Kana iwe usingakwanise kupindura iyi mibvunzo nemazvo, kufungidzira kwekubira mari kana kumwe kupara mhosva kunogona kumuka uye ongororo ine chekuita nesangano rako inogona kutanga.

Mutemo we cryptocurrency

Sezvambotaurwa pamusoro apa, cryptocurrency haisati yatongwa. Nekudaro, iyo yekutengeserana uye kushandiswa kwe cryptocurrencies ingangove yakanyatsogadziriswa, nekuda kwemhosva uye yemari njodzi inowanikwa necrycurrency. Iwo mutemo we cryptocurrency iri musoro wenyaya wekukurukurirana kutenderera pasirese. Sangano reInternational Monetary Fund (Sangano Romubatanidzwa Wenyika Dzepasi Pose rinoshanda mumubatanidzwa wezvemari pasi rose, kuchengetedza mari kugadzikana uye kufambisira kutengeserana kwepasi rose) riri kuda kuti kubatana kwepasi rose pamusoro pe cryptocurrencies sezvo kwayinyevera kune njodzi dzemari nematsotsi. [5] IEuropean Union iri kupokana kuti ingatongese here kana kutarisa maikisheni, kunyange vasati vagadzira mutemo chaiwo. Uyezve, mutemo we cryptocurrency inyaya yekune nharo munyika dzinoverengeka dzakadai seChina, South-Korea, neRussia. Nyika idzi dziri kutora kana kuda kutora matanho kuitira kuti kumisike mitemo ine chekuita nezve cryptocurrencies. MuNetherlands, iyo Financial Services neMarkets Authority yakaratidza kuti mafemu ekudyara ane basa rakawanda rekutarisira pavanopa Bitcoin-ramangwana kune vatengesi vekutengesa muNetherlands. Izvi zvinosanganisira kuti aya mafemu ekudyara anofanirwa kuchengetedza kufarira kwevatengi vavo mune yehunyanzvi, yakavimbika uye yakatendeseka nzira. [6] Iko kurukurirano yepasi rose pamusoro pemutemo we cryptocurrency inoratidza kuti mazhinji emasangano anofunga kuti zvakafanira kumisikidza kanenge imwe mhando yemutemo.

mhedziso

Zviri raiti kutaura kuti cryptocurrency iri kuwedzera. Nekudaro, vanhu vanoita sekunge vanokanganwa kuti kutengesa nekushandisa mari idzi kunokwanisawo kuisa dzimwe njodzi. Usati iwe uchizviziva, iwe unogona kuwira mukati mechikamu cheDutch Criminal Code kana uchibata ne cryptocurrency. Aya madhora anowanzobatanidzwa nemabasa ematsotsi, kunyanya kubvisirwa mari. Kubvumirana saka kwakakosha kwazvo kumakambani asingade kumhan'arwa mhosva dzekupara mhosva. Kuziva kwewakabva cryptocurrencies kunotamba chikamu chikuru mune izvi. Sezvo cryptocurrency ine imwe nzira isina kunaka yekureva, nyika nemasangano vari kuita nharo kuti vaone kana kusatema mirairo zvine chekuita ne cryptocurrency. Kunyangwe dzimwe nyika dzakatotora matanho akananga kumurongero, zvinogona kutora nguva kuti mutemo wepasirese usati waitwa. Nekudaro, zvakakosha kwazvo kuti makambani angwarire kana uchibata ne cryptocurrency uye uve nechokwadi chekutarisisa kutevedzera.

udza mashoko

If you have questions or comments after reading this article, please feel free to contact Maxim Hodak, an attorney-at-law at Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or Tom Meevis, an attorney-at-law at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716.

[2] ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992.

[3] ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376.

[4] Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'Reële cryptocurrencies, https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/nov/risico-cryptocurrencies.

[5] Chirevo Fintech neMari Services: Kutanga Kufunga, International Monetary Fund 2017.

[6] Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'Bitcoin Futures: AFM op', https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/dec/bitcoin-futures-zorgplicht.

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