Kurambana neKubereka Kwevabereki. Chii chaunofanira kuziva?

Iwe wakaroora here kana iwe une yakanyoreswa kudyidzana? Pakadai, mutemo wedu unobva pachimiro chekutarisira nekurera vana nevabereki vese, zvinoenderana nechinyorwa 1: 247 BW. Vanenge zviuru makumi matanhatu zvevana vakatarisana nekurambana kubva kuvabereki vavo gore rega rega. Nekudaro, kunyangwe mushure mekurambana, vana vane kodzero yekuchengetwa zvakaenzana uye kurerwa nevabereki nevabereki vane kodzero yekuchengeta vana, rambai muchishandisa masimba aya muchibatana zvinoenderana neChinyorwa 60,000: 1 cheDutch Civil Code. Mukupesana nezvakare, vabereki saka vanoramba vari mukutarisira pamwe kwevabereki masimba.

Kurambana neKubereka Kwevabereki. Chii chaunofanira kuziva?

Kuchengetwa kwevabereki kunogona kutsanangurwa seyese kodzero uye zvisungo zvinevabereki maererano nekurerwa nekuchengetwa kwevana vavo vadiki uye zvine chekuita nezvinhu zvinotevera: munhu wevacheche, manejimendi epfuma yake uye mumiririri wezviito uye zvisina tsarukano. Zvikurukuru, zvine chekuita nebasa revabereki rekukudziridza hunhu, hutano hwepfungwa nemuviri uye kuchengetedzeka kwemwana, izvo zvinodzivisa kushandiswa kwechisimba chipi zvacho chepfungwa kana chemuviri. Uye zvakare, kubvira 2009, kuchengeta mwana kunosanganisirawo chisungo chemubereki chekuvandudza kukura kwehukama pakati pemwana neumwe mubereki. Mushure mezvose, paramende anozviona sekufarira kwemwana kuve nehukama wega nevabereki vese.

Zvakangodaro, mamiriro ezvinhu anofungidzirwa umo kuenderera kwesimba revabereki uye nekudaro kusangana pachezvako nemumwe wevabereki mushure mekurambana zvisingaite kana kudikanwa. Ndokusaka Chinyorwa 1: 251a cheDutch Civil Code chiine, nenzira yekusiyana nenheyo, mukana wekukumbira dare kuti ripe mubatanidzwa wekuchengeta mwana kumubereki mumwe mushure mekurambana. Nekuti aya mamiriro akasarudzika, dare rinongopa masimba evabereki nekuda kwezvikonzero zviviri:

  1. kana paine njodzi isingagamuchirike yekuti mwana anozobatwa kana kurasikirwa pakati pevabereki uye hazvitarisirwe kuti kugadzirisa kwakakwana kuchawanikwa mune ramangwana rinotaridzika, kana
  2. kana shanduko yekuchengetwa yakadikanwa neimwe nzira mune zvakanakira mwana.

The first criterion

The first criterion has been developed in case law and  the assessment of whether this criterion is met, is very casuistically. For example, the lack of good communication between the parents and the simple failure to comply with the parental access arrangement does not automatically mean that in the best interest of the child, parental authority must be assigned to one of the parents.[1] While requests for the removal of joint custody and the granting of sole custody to one of the parents in cases where any form of communication was completely absent[2], it was likely that there was serious domestic violence, stalking, threats[3] or in which the caring parent systematically frustrated with the other parent[4], were granted. With regard to the second criterion, the reasoning must be substantiated by sufficient facts that single-head parental authority is necessary in the best interests of the child. An example of this criterion is the situation in which important decisions have to be made about the child and the parents are not able to consult about the child in the foreseeable future and to allow decision-making to take place adequately and with promptness, which is contrary to the interests of the child.[5] In general, the judge is reluctant to convert joint custody into one-headed custody, certainly in the first period after the divorce.

Iwe unoshuvira here kuva nesimba revabereki pamusoro pevana vako vega mushure mekurambana? Panguva iyoyo, iwe unofanirwa kutanga mafambiro nekutumira chikumbiro kuti uwane simba revabereki kudare. Chikumbiro chinofanirwa kuve nechikonzero nei iwe uchingoda chete kuve nemwana wekuchengeta. Gweta rinodikanwa kuti uite izvi. Gweta rako rinogadzirira chikumbiro, rinotarisa kuti ndeapi mamwe magwaro avanofanira kuvhara uye voendesa chikumbiro kudare. Kana chikumbiro chekuchengetwa wega chatumirwa, mumwe mubereki kana vamwe vanofarira vachapihwa mukana wekupindura ichi chikumbiro. Kamwe padare, maitiro ane chekuita nekupihwa masimba evabereki anogona kutora nguva yakareba: mashoma emwedzi mitatu kusvika pagore rimwe chete, zvinoenderana nekuoma kwenyaya.

Muzviitiko zvakakomba zvekupokana, mutongi anowanzo bvunza iyo Yekuchengetwa kweVana uye Dziviriro Board kuti iite ongororo nekupa kuraira (art. 810 ndima 1 DCCP). Kana kanzuru ikatanga kuferefetwa nechikumbiro chemutongi, izvi zvichadonongodza zvichikonzera kunonoka mukutongwa. Chinangwa chekuferefeta kwakadai neChild Care and Protection Board ndechekutsigira vabereki mukugadzirisa kusawirirana kwavo pamusoro pekuchengeta zvakanakira mwana. Chete kana izvi zvikasatungamira kumhedzisiro mukati memasvondo mana ndipo kanzuru inoenderera mberi nekuunganidza ruzivo rwakakosha uye nekupa rairo. Nekudaro, dare rinogona kupa kana kuramba chikumbiro chemvumo yevabereki. Mutongi anowanzo kupa chikumbiro kana achifunga kuti mamiriro echikumbiro akazadzikiswa, hapana chinopesana nechikumbiro chekuchengetwa uye kuchengetwa kwacho kwakanakira mwana. Mune zvimwe zviitiko, mutongi acharamba chikumbiro.

At Law & More isu tinonzwisisa kuti kurambana inguva yakaoma yemanzwiro kwauri. Panguva imwe chete, kuchenjera kufunga nezvesimba revabereki pavana vako. Kunzwisisa kwakanaka kwemamiriro ezvinhu uye nesarudzo kwakakosha. Law & More inogona kukubatsira kuti uone chinzvimbo chako chepamutemo uye, kana zvichidikanwa, tora chikumbiro chekuwana chiremera chevabereki mumwe chete pamaoko ako. Iwe unozviziva iwe mune imwe yeanotsanangurwa pamusoro apa, unoda here kuva iwe wega mubereki kushandisa kuchengetwa kwemwana wako kana iwe unayo chero mimwe mibvunzo? Ndokumbirawo ubate magweta e Law & More.

[1] HR 10 september 1999, ECLI:NL:HR:1999:ZC2963; HR 19 april 2002, ECLI:NL:PHR:2002:AD9143.

[2] HR 30 september 2011, ECLI:NL:HR:2011:BQ8782.

[3] Hof ’s-Hertogenbosch 1 maart 2011, ECLI:NL:GHSGR:2011:BP6694.

[4] HR 9 juli 2010 ECLI:NL:HR:2010:BM4301.

[5] Hof Amsterdam 8 augustus 2017, ECLI:NL:GHAMS:2017:3228.

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