Kuchengetedzeka kwemari mukati memutemo wekambani

Kune vemabhizimusi, kuwana kuchengetedzeka kwemari kwakakosha. Paunopinda muchibvumirano nemumwe bato, iwe unoda kuve nechokwadi kuti mubatiri anozadzisa chibvumirano chake chekubhadhara chibvumirano. Kana iwe ukapa rubatsiro rwemari kana kuita matanho ekubatsira mumwe munhu, iwe zvakare unoda vimbiso yekuti huwandu hwawakapa huchazopedziswa. Mune mamwe mazwi, iwe unoda kuwana kuchengetedzwa kwemari. Kuwana chengetedzo yezvemari kunoona kuti mukweretesi ane mubatanidzwa kana achinge aona kuti zvaari kukumbira hazvisi kuzadzikiswa. Pane akasiyana mikana yekuti mabhizimusi nemakambani awane kuchengetedzwa kwemari. Mune chinyorwa ichi, dhadharo yakati wandei, escrow, (kambani yevabereki) garandii, makumi mana nematatu, kuzivisa, chikwereti uye rubvumirano zvichakurukurwa.

Kuchengetedzeka kwemari mukati memutemo wekambani

1. Yakawanda chikwereti

Panyaya yezvikwereti zvakati wandei, zvinonzi zvakare chikwereti chemubatanidzwa, hapana kutaura kwakasimba hapana vimbiso inopihwa, asi kune mumwe mukweretesi anotora mutoro kune vamwe vane chikwereti. Zvinhanho zvinoverengeka zvinobva kuchinyorwa 6: 6 Dutch Civil Code. Mienzaniso yezvikwereti zvakati mukati mehukama hwehukama ndevabatsiri vehukama vane mutoro wakasarudzika pazvikwereti zvekudyidzana kana vatungamiriri vechisimba chepamutemo icho, mune mamwe mamiriro ezvinhu, chinogona kuve nemhosva pachako pachikwereti chekambani. Izvo zvinhanho zvinoverengeka zvinowanzogadziriswa sechengeteko muchibvumirano pakati pemapato. Mutemo wechigunwe ndewekuti, kana chiitwa chichibva muchibvumirano chakakodzera nevaviri kana vanopfuura vane chikwereti, ivo mumwe nemumwe anozvipira kuita chikamu chakaenzana. Ivo vanogona saka vanosungirwa kuzadzisa chavo chikamu chechibvumirano. Nekudaro, zvakati wandei chikwereti chisarudzo kune uyu mutemo. Panyaya yezvikwereti zvakati wandei, pane mashandiro anofanira kuitwa nevaviri kana vanopfuura vane chikwereti, asi ipo mumwe nemumwe anenge aine chikwereti anogona kubatwa kuti aite basa racho rose. Mukweretesi ane kodzero yekuzadzisa chibvumirano chose kubva kune wese anenge ane chikwereti. Naizvozvo, mukweretesi anogona kusarudza kuti ndeupi wevanokweretesa waanoda kugadzirisa uye anogona kuzokumbira mari izere kubva kune uyu ane chikwereti. Kana mumwe munhu ane chikwereti akabhadhara mari yacho yese, vanopa chikwereti havana mukweretesi chero chinhu zvacho.

1.1 Kodzero yekudzoka

Vane chikwereti vari mukati mekwereti yekubhadhara mumwe nemumwe, saka chikwereti chakabhadharwa nemumwe mukweretesi chinofanira kugadziriswa pakati pevose vanechikwereti. Iyi inonzi kodzero yekudzoka. Kodzero yekudzoka ikodzero yemunhu ane chikwereti kuti atorezve zvaakabhadhara kune mumwe anenge aine chikwereti. Kana mukweretesi aine chikwereti chakakura kubhadhara chikwereti uye obhadhara chikwereti chizere, anowana kodzero yekudzore chikwereti ichi kubva kune vaanobhadhara chikwereti.

Kana munhu ane chikwereti asingachadi kubhadhariswa mari yaakapinda pamwe chete nevamwe vanokweretesa mari, anogona kukumbira anenge akweretwa kuti anyore kwaari kubva pachikwereti chakati. Muenzaniso weiyi mamiriro ezvinhu apo mukweretesi apinda muchibvumirano chechikwereti chemubatanidzwa pamwe nemudiwa, asi anoda kusiya kambani. Muchiitiko ichi, kudzingwa kwakanyorwa kwezvemamwe zvikwereti kunofanirwa kugara kuchikwekwe nemukweretesi; Kuzvipira nemuromo kubva kune vako vaunopa chikwereti kuti ivo vachabhadhara zvikwereti hakuna kukwana. Kana iwe waunenge uine chikwereti iwe usingakwanisi kana kusazadzisa chibvumirano chomuromo, mukweretesi anogona kutora chikwereti chose kubva kwauri.

1.2. Kudikanwa kwemvumo

Iye wekuroora kana wekunyoresa mukweretesi ane chikwereti chakawanda chinodzivirirwa nemutemo. Sekureva kwechinyorwa 1:88 ndima 1 sub c Dutch Civil Code, mumwe wake anoda mvumo kubva kune mumwe wake kuti apinde muzvibvumirano zviri kusunga paari semubvumirano yaanopa mukweretesi wechikwereti, kunze kwekuita mune zvakajairika bhizinesi zviitiko zvekambani. Izvi ndizvo zvinonzi zvinodiwa zvemvumo. Chinyorwa ichi chinofunga kuchengetedza vakaroora kubva kuzviito zvepamutemo izvo zvinogona kunge zvine njodzi huru yemari. Kana mukweretesi aine mukweretesi pamubvumirano wechikwereti chakakwana, izvi zvinogona zvakare kuva nemhedzisiro kune mumwe wako wemukweretesi. Nekudaro, pane kusiyapo pane ichi chinodiwa chekubvuma. Sekureva kwechinyorwa 1:88 ndima 5 Danish Civil Code, kubvumidzwa hakuna kudikanwa apo director wekambani inoremedza vanhu kadhi kana kambani yakazvimiririra yechikwereti (Dutch NV uye BV) vakapinda muchibvumirano, uku director uyu ari ega, kana pamwe chete nevaaitungamira navo, muridzi wehuwandu hwemigawo uye kana chibvumirano chakapera pachinzvimbo chemabasa akajairwa ebhizinesi rekambani. Mune izvi, pane zviviri zvinodiwa zvinoda kuzadzikiswa: director ari maneja director uye ruzhinji rekugovera kana ane ruzhinji rwemugove pamwe chete nevaaitungamira navo nd chibvumirano chakazadziswa pachinzvimbo chenguva dzose bhizinesi zviitiko zvekambani. Kana izvi zvisiri zvinodiwa zvese zviri zviviri, zvinodiwa zvekubvumirana zvinoshanda.

2. Escrow

Kana bato richida kuchengetedzwa kuti mari yemubhadharo ichabhadharwa, kuchengetedzeka uku kunogona kupihwawo neescrow.[1] Escrow inowana kubva kuchinyorwa 7: 850 Dutch Civil Code. Isu tinotaura nezve escrow apo wechitatu anozvipa iye kune mukweretesi kune kuzvipira kunofanirwa kuzadziswa neimwe bato (iye akakweretesa chikwereti). Izvi zvinoitwa nekupedza chibvumirano cheescrow. Chechitatu chikamu chinopa chengetedzo, chinodaidzwa kunzi guarantor. Anomutsidzira anotora chisungo chakanangana nemukweretesi wechikwereti mukuru. Anovimbisa saka haagamuchire mutoro wechikwereti chake, asi chikwereti chemumwe mubato uye iye pachake anopa chengetedzo kubhadhara kwechikwereti ichi. Anomuvimbisa ane mhosva nezvinhu zvake zvese. Escrow inogona kubvumirwa kuzadzikiswa kwezvibvumirano izvo zvatove zviripo, asi zvakare kuzadzikiswa kwezvibvumirano zveramangwana. Tichifunga nezvechinyorwa 7: 851 ndima 2 Danish Civil Code, izvi zvido zvenguva yemberi zvinofanirwa kuve zvakaringana kusanzwisisika panguva iyo escrow yapedzwa. Kana akakweretesa chikwereti akoniwa kuita zvisungo zvake kubva pachibvumirano, mukweretesi anokwanisa kugadzirisa anenge akavimbisa kuita izvi. Maererano nechinyorwa 7: 851 Dutch Civil Code, iyo escrow inotsigira kubva kune chisungo chemukweretesi pachinangwa chei escrow. Naizvozvo, escrow inorega kuvapo kana munhu anenge aine chikwereti akwanirisa zvisungo zvake kubva pachibvumirano chikuru.

Mukweretesi haakwanisi kungo taura akavimbisa kubhadhara chikwereti. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti inodaidzwa kunzi nheyo yekubatsirana inoita basa muescrow. Izvi zvinoreva kuti mukweretesi haangakwanise kukwidza mhiko kuna guarantor wekubhadhara. Chekutanga pane zvese, guarantor anogona kunge asina kuve nemhosva yekubhadhara pamberi pechikwereti chikuru chisati chakundikana mukuzadzika kwemabatiro ake. Izvi zvinotorwa kubva kuchinyorwa 7: 855 Dutch Civil Code. Izvi zvinoreva kuti munhu anovimbisa anogona kungobatirwa chikwereti nemukweretesi mushure mekunge mukweretesi atanga kutaurirana kune akakweretesa chikwereti. Mukweretesi anofanirwa kunge akaita zvese zvakafanira kuratidza kuti mukweretesi, kune uyo anozvipira iye akazvipira, akatadza kuita zvaakabhadhara. Chero zvazvingaitika, mukweretesi anofanira kutumira chiziviso chekukanganisa kune akakweretesa chikwereti. Chete kana chikwereti chakakura chikatadza kutevedzera mutemo wekubhadhara mushure mekutambira chiziviso chekukanganisa, mukweretesi anogona kukwidza mhosva yake kumubhadharo. Nekudaro, guarantor ine mukana wekuti azvidzivirire pakupokana kwemuridzi wechikwereti. Kuti izvi zviitike, ane dziviriro imwechete yaainayo iye akakweretesa chikwereti anayo, yakadai sokumiswa, kuregererwa kana kukwikwidza pane kusavimbika. Izvi zvinotorwa kubva kuchinyorwa 7: 852 Dutch Civil Code.

2.1 Kodzero yekudzoka

Anovimbisa uyo anobhadhara chikwereti chemunhu ane chikwereti, anogona kutora mari iyi kubva kune iye anenge aine chikwereti. Kodzero yekudzoka saka inoshandawo kune escrow. Mu escrow, yakasarudzika fomu yekodzero yekudzokorora inoshanda, iyo inonzi subrogation. Mutemo mukuru ndewekuti chikumbiro chinorega kuvapo kana chikumbiro chabhadharwa. Nekudaro, kunyorera mubatanidzwa mutemo uyu. Mukunyengedzera, kudhinhwa kunoendeswa kune mumwe muridzi. Mune ino kesi, imwe bato kupfuura iye anechikwereti anobhadhara zvaakakweretwa. Mu escrow, kudhita kunobhadharwa neyechitatu bato, iri guarantor. Nekubhadhara chikwereti, zvisinei, icho chaunopomera chikwereti hachirasikirwe, bhazi rinoendeswa kubva kune waari kukweretesa achibhadhara chikwereti. Mushure mekubhadhara chikwereti, guarantor anogona ipapo kuenda kunotora iyo huwandu kubva kune iye mukweretesi waakapinda muchibvumirano cheescrow. Subrogation inogoneka chete mune zviitiko zvinodzorwa nemutemo. Subrogation zvine chekuita nescrow inogoneka pane hwaro hwechinyorwa 7: 866 Dutch Civil Code jo. chinyorwa 6:10 Danish Civil Code.

2.2 bhizinesi uye yakazvimiririra escrow

Pane mutsauko pakati pebhizimusi uye rakazvimirira escrow. Bhizinesi escrow ndiyo escrow inopedzwa mukuitwa kwehunyanzvi kana bhizinesi, yakazvimiririra escrow ndiyo escrow inopedzwa kunze kwekurovedza kwehunyanzvi kana bhizinesi. Zvese zviri zviviri zviri pamutemo munhu uye zvakasikwa munhu anogona kupedzisa escrow chibvumirano. Mienzaniso yeiyi ikambani inobata iyo inopedzisa chibvumirano escrow nebhengi yekubhadhara mari yechibvumirano ichi nevabereki vanopedza chibvumirano cheescrow chekuona kuti kubhadhara kwemari yembereko yakafambiswa nemwana wavo kunoiswa kubhengi. Iyo escrow haigone kugara ichingopedzwa pachinzvimbo chebhengi, zvinokwanisika kupinda muchibvumirano cheescrow nevamwe vanokweretesa.

Yakawanda yenguva iyo zvakajeka kana bhizinesi kana yakazvimiririra escrow yakagumiswa. Kana kambani ikapinda muchibvumirano cheescrow, bhizinesi escrow inopedzwa. Kana munhu wechisikigo achipinda muchibvumirano cheescrow, kazhinji pane yakasarudzika escrow inopedzwa. Nekudaro, ambiguity inogona kuitika kana director wekambani yevashandi vanezviremwaremhu kana imwe yakazvimiririra kambani mutoro ikaita chibvumirano cheescrow panzvimbo yeboka repamutemo. Article 7: 857 Dutch Civil Code inosanganisira izvo zvinorehwa neyakavanzika escrow: kupedzisa kwescrow nemunhu asikwa asina kuita mukuita kwehunyanzvi hwake, kana nekuda kwechiitiko chenguva dzose chekambani yeruzhinji yakaremerwa kana chakasarudzika chikwereti chakati. kambani. Zvakare, iye guarantor anofanira kunge ari director wekambani uye, ari oga kana nevatungamiriri veavo, ane ruzhinji rwehuwandu. Pane maitiro maviri anokosha:

- anovimbisa ndiye maneja wekutonga uye mazhinji anogovera kana ane ruzhinji rwezvikamu pamwe chete nevatevedzeri vake;
- iyo escrow inopedzwa nekuda kweyakajairika bhizinesi zviitiko zvekambani.

Mukuita, kune kazhinji kune maneja maneja / ruzhinji rwekugoverana uyo anopinda muchibvumirano cheescrow. Anotungamira director / vazhinji vanozogovana anosarudza mutemo wekambani uye achazvifarira ega mune escrow yekambani yake, nekuti zvinogona kuitika kuti bhangi haridi kupa mari pasina kutanga chibvumirano cheescrow. Uye zvakare, chibvumirano cheescrow, chakapedzeredzwa nemaneja maneja / vazhinji vanozogovana, chinofanirawo kunge chakagumisirwa nechinangwa chezviitiko zvebhizimusi rakajairika. Nekudaro, izvi zvakasiyana kune imwe neimwe mamiriro uye mutemo hautsanangure izwi rekuti 'zvakajairika bhizinesi zviitiko'. Kuti uongorore kana escrow inopedzwa nechinangwa chezvaiitika zvebhizinesi, mamiriro ezvinhu emhosva anofanira kuongororwa. Kana zvese izvi zvirevo zvasangana, bhizinesi escrow rinopedzwa. Kana director anenge achipedzisa escrow asiri maneja director / vakawanda vanozogovana kana escrow isina kugumisirwa nechinangwa chezviitiko zvebhizimusi rakajairika, escrow yakazvimiririra inopedzwa.

Mimwe mirawo inoshanda kune yakasarudzika escrow. Mutemo unopa chengetedzo kune iye wekuroora kana kunyoreswa mukwikwidzi weakasununguka guarantor. Chinodiwa chekubvumidza icho chinoshandawo kune yakasarudzika escrow. Zvinoenderana nechinyorwa 1:88 ndima 1 sub c Dutch Civil kodhi, mumwe wake anoda mvumo yemumwe wake kuti apinde muchibvumirano icho chinoda kumusunga sevimbiso. Mvumo yemumwe mukadzi we guarantor inosungirwa kuti ipinde muchibvumirano chakazvimirira chega cheescrow. Nekudaro, chinyorwa 1:88 ndima 5 Danish Civil Code inotaura kuti mvumo iyi haidiwi kana escrow yapedzwa nemuridzi webhizinesi. Kudzivirirwa kwemumwe mukadzi wechivimbiso saka kunoshanda kune zvibvumirano zvevanzika zveescrow.

3. Guarantee

Ivimbiso ndeimwe mukana wekuwana chengetedzo iyo yaunobhadharirwa ichabhadharwa. Chivimbiso ikodzero yemunhu oga yekuchengetedza, apo wechitatu anotora chisungo chakazvimirira kuti azadzikise kuzvipira pakati pewakakweretesa pamwe nechikwereti. Chivimbiso saka chinobatanidza kuti wechitatu anovimbisa kuzadzikiswa kwezvibvumirano zveanokweretesa. Anomutsidzira anozvipira kubhadhara chikwereti kana mukweretesi asingakwanisi kana kubhadhara.[2] Chivimbiso hachirambidzwe nemutemo, asi vimbiso inopedzwa muchibvumirano pakati pemapato.

3.1. Accessory garandi

Musiyano unogona kuitwa pakati pemafomu maviri echivimbiso kuitira kuti uwane kuchengetedzwa; vhezheni yekuwana uye chisimbisiro. Chivimbiso chinowanikwa kubva pahukama pakati pemukweretesi newakweretesi. Pakutanga kuona, iyo yekuwanikwa garandi yakafanana nescrow. Nekudaro, mutsauko ndewekuti guarantor maererano nechisimba chekuwanikwa haazvipikise kune chiitiko chimwe chete nechikwereti chakakosha, asi kuzvisungo zveumwe munhu aine imwe mamiriro. Muenzaniso wakapusa weizvi ndipo apo mugadziri anozvipira kuendesa nyanya kumutengi kune mukweretesi, kana mukweretesi akasazadzisa chisungo chake kuendesa mbatatisi. Mune ino kesi, zviri mukati measungwa zvechisungo zvinosungirwa kubva pane zviri mukati mezvinosungirwa mukweretesi. Nekudaro, izvi hazvibve pane chokwadi chekuti pane kubatana kukuru pakati pezvibvumirano izvi zviviri. Kuvimbiswa kwekuwanikwa kunowedzerwa kune hukama pakati pewakakweretesa uye ane chikwereti. Zvakare, iyo yekuwanikwa garandi ichagara iine basa rekuchengetedza mambure; chete kana chikwereti chakakura chisingazadzise zvisungo zvake, guarantor anodanwa kuti aite kuzvipira kwake.

Kunyangwe iyo vimbiso isingataurwe zvakajeka mumutemo, chinyorwa 7: 863 Dutch Civil Code inoreva zvizere nezvevimbiso yekuwanikwa. Zvinoenderana nechinyorwa ichi, zviga zvine chekuita neyakavanzika escrow zvinoshandawo kune zvibvumirano apo munhu anozviitira kune rimwe basa muchiitiko icho chechitatu chinotadza kutevedzera chimwe chisungo chine chakasiyana chakanangana nechikwereti. Izvo zvinodiwa zvine chekuita nezvezvakavanzika escrow saka zvinoshandawo kune yekuwedzera iyo inopedzwa nemunhu akazvimirira.

3.2 Abstract vimbiso

Pamusoro peiyo yekuwanikwa garandi, isu zvakare tinoziva kuchengetedzeka kwemari kweyekufungidzirwa garandi. Kusiyana nevimbiso yekuwanikwa, iyo yekufungidzirwa yekuzvipira iko kuzvimiririra kwakazvimiririra kwe guarantor kune iye waakweretesa. Iyi vimbiso haina kusarura kubva kune pasi pehukama hwehukama pakati pewakakweretesa uye ane chikwereti. Muchiitiko chechivimbiso chemubvumirano, mushambadzi anozvipira kune chisungo chakazvimiririra chekuita basa rechikwereti, pasi pemamwe mamiriro. Kuita uku hakuna kusungirwa pachibvumirano chepasirese pakati pezvikwereti nemukweretesi. Muenzaniso unonyanya kuzivikanwa weanobvunzwa rubatso rubatso.

Kana garandi isinganzwisisike yapera, iye anovimbisa haagoni kudzivirira kubva pahukama hwacho. Kana mamiriro ezvinhu echivimbiso akasangana, guarantor haagoni kudzivirira kubhadhara. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti garandi rinobva muchibvumirano chakaparadzana pakati pewakakweretesa pamwe neye guarantor. Izvi zvinoreva kuti mukweretesi anogona kubva angogadzirisa mugadziri, pasina kutumira chiziviso chekukanganisa kune iye ane chikwereti. Nekupedzisa garandi, iye anokweretesa saka anowana yakakwirira yechokwadi chekuti chikwereti chakabhadharwa kwaari. Mukuwedzera, guarantor haina kodzero yekudzoka. Nekudaro, mapato anogona kusanganisira matanho ekudzivirira muchibvumirano chevimbiso. Mhedzisiro yemutemo yedhiza isingabvumirwe haibve pamutemo wekutonga, asi inogona kuzadzwa nemapato ivo pachavo. Kunyangwe iye guarantor asina kodzero yekudzoka pasi pemutemo, anogona kuzvitsvagira nzira dzezvekupora. Semuenzaniso, garandi rekupokana rinogona kupedzwa nemukweretesi kana tepi yekuremara inogona kuvezwa.

3.3 Parent kambani garandi

Mune mutemo wekambani, garandi yekambani yevabereki inowanzo kupedzwa. Kambani yemubereki inovimbisa kuti kambani yevabereki inozvipira kuzviisa pasi pezvisungo zverubatsiro rweboka rimwechete kana mutsigiro pachawo asingakwanise kana kusakwanisa kuita izvi zvinosungirwa. Ehe, vimbiso iyi inogona kubvumirana chete nemakambani ari chikamu cheboka kana kambani inobata. Mukutungamira, chisungo cheboka ndeye rubatso rusinganzwisisike. Nekudaro, kazhinji hapana 'yekutanga kubhadhara, wobva wataura' pfungwa, ipapo iyo guarantor inongobhadhara chikwereti pasina kutarisa mune chinhu kana paine chaanodikanwa kupokana nechikwereti. Icho chikonzero cheichi ndechekuti mukweretesi ndiye anotsigira we guarantor; guarantor achazoda kutanga atarisa kana paine chaidi chinodiwa. Kunyange zvakadaro, 'yekutanga kubhadhara, ipapo kutaura' kuvakwa kunogona kuvakwa muchibvumirano chevimbiso. Mushure mezvose, mapato anogona kugadzira garandi zvinoenderana nezvavanoda ivo. Mapato acho anofanirawo kuona kana vimbiso ichisanganisira garandi rekubhadhara kana kuti vimbiso yacho inofanirawo kuvhara zvimwe zvinosungirwa, uye ndosaka iri garandi yekuita Kukura, nguva uye mamiriro evimbiso anotaridzirwawo nemapato ivo pachavo. Yevabereki kambani yekuvimbisa inokwanisa kupa mhinduro kana iyo subsidiary ikaenda, asi chete kana kambani yemubereki ikasadonha pamwe nemakambani ayo.

4. 403-chirevo

Mukati meboka remakambani, inonzi-403-chirevo zvakare inowanzo kupihwa. Ichi chirevo chinobva pane chinyorwa 2: 403 Dutch Civil Code. Nekuburitsa 403-chirevo, ivo vanopa rubatsiro muboka iri vanoregererwa kunyora nekuburitsa maakaundi akasiyana pagore. Pane kudaro, iyo yakasunganidzwa yegore account inonyorwa. Iyi ndiyo yegore account yekambani yemubereki, mune izvo zvese mhedzisiro yemasangano yakaverengerwa. Iko kumashure kweakaundi yakasanganiswa yeakaundi ndeyekuti ese anotsigira, kunyangwe achiwanzo shanda zvakazvimiririra, pakupedzisira anowira pasi pekutonga nekutarisirwa kwekambani yemubereki. Chirevo makumi mana neshanu chiitiko chisina kujairika pamutemo chiitiko, kubva uko kuzvipira kwakazvimirira kwevabereki kambani kumuka. Izvi zvinoreva kuti iyo 403-chirevo chisingaiti-chekuwana kuzvipira. Iko 403-chirevo hachisi kungoburitswa nemapoka makuru emarudzi; mapoka madiki, semuenzaniso anosanganisira maviri akasarudzika mashoma mitezo makambani, anokwanisa zvakare kushandisa 403-chirevo. Iko 403-chirevo chinofanirwa kunyoreswa mukati meRejista YeCenter of Commerce. Chirevo ichi chinoratidza kuti zvikwereti zverubatsiro zviri kuvharwa nekambani yevabereki uye kubva musi upi.

Rumwe rutivi rwe 403-chirevo ndechekuti kambani yevabereki ine chirevo ichi chinotaura kuti ndiyo inosungira zvisungo zvemakambani ayo. Kambani yemubereki saka ine mhosva yakakura kune zvikwereti zvinobva pamutemo zviitiko zvevabatsiri. Ichi chikwereti chakati wandei chinosanganisira kuti mukweretesi wemubatirwa kwaakapihwa chirevo makumi mana nemakumi mana, anogona kusarudza chinzvimbo chepamutemo chaanoda kugadzirisa kuti azadzise chirevo chake: iyo inotsigira iyo yaakatemera chibvumirano chekutanga kana kambani yevabereki yakapa 403-chirevo. Nemhosho iyi yakati wandei, mukweretesi anopihwa mari yekushaiwa kwekunzwisisa mamiriro ezvemari wemubatsiri uyo waanopesana naye. Ipo zvataurwa pamusoro pekuchengetedzwa kwemari zvangoita chikwereti kune mumwe anopomerwa naye chibvumirano, 403-chirevo ichi chinopa mutoro kune vese vanokweretesa vemakambani aya. Panogona kunge paine vazhinji vanokweretesa vanogona kutaura nekambani yevabereki kuti vazadzikise zvavanotaura. Chikwereti chinogona kuitika chinobva pane makumi mana neshanu-chirevo chakadaro chakakura. Chinhu chisina kunaka cheizvi ndechekuti 403-chirevo chinogona kukanganisa boka rose kana mutsigiri akatarisana nematambudziko emari. Kana rubatsiro ruchinge rwaparara, boka rese rinogona kupunzika.

4.1 Rection of 403-chirevo

Izvo zvinoita kuti kambani yevabereki haichade kuve nechikwereti chechikwereti kana icho chemahara. Izvi zvinogona kunge zviripo kana kambani yemubereki ichida kutengesa subsidiary. Kuti ubvise 403-chirevo, maitiro anotora kubva pane chinyorwa 2: 404 Dutch Civil Code inoda kutevedzwa. Maitiro aya ane zvinhu zviviri. Chekutanga pane zvese, iyo 403-chirevo chinofanira kubviswa. Chirevo chekubvisa chinofanira kuiswa kuRejista Bhizinesi reChamber of Commerce. Uku kuziviswa kwekudzinga kunosanganisira kuti kambani yevabereki haisisina chikwereti chechikwereti chemubhadharo unoitika mushure mekuziviswa kwekudzingwa. Nekudaro, maererano nechinyorwa 2: 404 ndima 2 Danish Civil Code, kambani yevabereki inoramba ichine mhosva yezvikwereti zvinobva kuzviitiko zvemitemo zvakatemerwa iko kusati kwasvika 403-chirevo chakabviswa. Chikwereti saka chinoramba chiripo kune zvikwereti zvinobuda muchibvumirano chakapedziswa mushure mekuburitsa chirevo che403, asi vasati vapa chiziviso chekudzinga. Uku ndiko kuchengetedza mukweretesi, angave akapinda muchibvumirano nechokwadi cheiyo 403-chirevo mupfungwa.

Nekudaro, izvo zvinokwanisika kupedza chikwereti maererano neizvi zvekare zvemitemo zviito. Kuti uite izvi, iyo yekuwedzera maitiro, inotorwa kubva kuchinyorwa 2: 404 ndima 3 Dutch Civil Code, inofanirwa kuteedzerwa. Mamiriro akati wandei anoshanda mune iyi maitiro:

- mutsigiri anogona kunge asisiri chikamu cheboka;
- ziviso yechinangwa chekupedza iyo 403-chirevo chinofanirwa kuve chakawanikwa kuti chiongororwe kuChamber of Commerce kweanenge mwedzi miviri;
- anopfuura mwedzi miviri anofanira kunge apfuura kubva pakaziviswa mupepanhau renyika kuti ziviso yekumiswa iripo kuti iongororwe.

Uye zvakare, vakweretesi vachiri nemukana wekupikisa chinangwa chekupedza iwo 403-chirevo. Iyo 403-chirevo chinogona kungomiswa kana pasina kana kupikisa munguva kwayo kwakaiswa kana kupikiswa kwakaitwa kusingatariswe nemutongi. Izvo chete kana mamiriro ezvinhu ekudzoswa uye kubviswa kwezana-makumi mana nematatu akasangana, kambani yemubereki haisisina mhosva yekuzvikweretesa kwese kwese. Izvo zvakakosha kuti uku kubvisa uye kugumisa kuurayiwa nekuchenjera; kana kudzoserwa kana kubviswa kusati kwaitwa zvakanaka, kambani yevabereki inogona kutopihwa mhosva yezvikwereti zverubatsiro izvo zvakatengeswa makore apfuura.

5. Mari yemubhadharo uye rubatso

Kuchengetedzeka kwemari kunogona zvakare kuwanikwa nekutanga imba kana rubatso. Nepo aya mafomu ezvekuchengetedzeka emari akafanana neakasiyana, pane misiyano yakati wandei.

5.1. Imhondi

Imbaiti ndeye kuchengetedzwa kwemari kunoitwa nemapati. Imbavha inosungira kuti rimwe bato rinopa chikwereti kune rimwe bato. Pashure pacho, chikwereti chemogeji chinonyorwa kuitira kuti uwane kuchengetedzwa kwemari maererano nekubhadharwa kwechikwereti ichi. Chikwereti chekwereti kodzero yezvivakwa inogona kuvakwa maererano nepfuma yeakweretwa. Kana mukweretesi akatadza kudzorera chikwereti chake, mukweretesi anogona kutora iye imba kuti azadzise chikumbiro chake. Muenzaniso unonyanyo kuzivikanwa wechikwereti ndeye muridzi wemba akabvumirana nebhangi kuti bhanga richamupa chikwereti obva anoshandisa imba yake sechengetedzo pakudzorera chikwereti. Nekudaro, izvi hazvireve kuti regeji rinogona kungovambwa kuburikidza nebhengi. Mamwe makambani nevanhuwo zvavo vanogona kugumisa mari yekubhadhara. Chirevo mune zvakweretesa zvinogona kuve zvinovhiringidza. Mukutaura zvakajairika, bato, semuenzaniso bhangi, rinopa mari kune imwe bato. Nekudaro, kubva pamaonero ari pamutemo, anokwereta ndiye anopihwa mokweretesi, nepo bato rinopa chikwereti ndiye anenge akabata mokweretesi. Inga bhangi ndiye muridzi wechikwereti uye munhu arikuda kutenga imba ndiye anopa mokweretesa.

Hunhu hwemogeji ndehwekuti faji haigone kupedziswa pane chero chivakwa. maererano nechinyorwa 3: 227 Dutch Civil Code, faindi inogona kungosimbiswa pane yakanyoreswa chivakwa. Kana nzvimbo yakanyoreswa ikatengeswa, ichi chinotakurwa chinoda kunyoreswa mumarejista eruzhinji. Chete mushure mekunyoreswa uku, iyo nzvimbo yakanyoreswa inowanikwa nemutengi. Mienzaniso yenzvimbo yakanyoreswa inzvimbo, dzimba, zvikepe uye ndege. Mota haina kunyoreswa midziyo. Zvakare, chikwereti chinogona kuvambwa chete kuti chibatsire 'chikumbiro chakakwana'. Izvi zvinotorwa kubva kuchinyorwa 3: 231 Dutch Civil Code. Izvi zvinoreva kuti inofanirwa kuve yakajeka pamusoro penyaya yekuti iyo imba yekubatira yakatangwa. Kana mukweretesi aine zvikwereti zviviri zvichipomerwa mukweretesi, zvinofanirwa kunge zvakajeka maererano neupi kune aya maviri mvumo yekukweretesa kupihwa. Uyezve, muridzi weinzvimbo inochengeterwa imba yake anoramba ari muridzi; iko kuvepo hakupfuuri mushure mekugadzikwa kwekodzero yemubhadharo. Imbavha inogara inogadzwa nekupa notarial deed.

Kana mukweretesi akasaita zvaakaripira kubhadhara, mukweretesi anogona kushandisa kodzero yake yekutengesa nokutengesa imba yacho pachinzvimbo chakamiswa chikwereti. Hakuna dare rematare rinodikanwa pane izvi. Izvi zvinodaidzwa kuurayiwa nekukurumidza uye zvinobva kuchinyorwa 3: 268 Dutch Civil Code. Izvo zvakakosha kuti uzive kuti mukweretesi anogona kungotengesa chivakwa chete kuti azadzise chirevo chake; anogona kunge asina kukodzera pfuma. Kurambidzwa uku kunonyatsotsanangurwa chinyorwa 3: 235 Dutch Civil Code. Chinhu chakakosha chechikwereti chekuti mokweretesa ane chekutanga pamusoro pevamwe vakweretesi vanoshuvira kutora icho chivakwa kuti vazadzise zvavanenge vakumbira. Izvi zvinoenderana nechinyorwa 3: 227 Dutch Civil Code. Munguva yekubhuroka, munhu anenge aine chikwereti haafanire kufunga nezvevamwe vakweretesi, asi anogona kungoshandisa kodzero yake yekutenga imba. Ndiye wekutanga mukweretesi uyo anogona kuzadzisa chikumbiro chake nepundutso kubva mukutengesa kwenzvimbo yakanyoreswa.

5.2. Chivimbiso

Kodzero yekuchengetedza inoenzaniswa nemamogeji ndiyo rubatso. Kupesana nechikwereti, rubatso harugone kuvambwa pazvinhu zvisingasimudzirwe. Nekudaro, chibvumirano chinogona kuvakwa pane chero imwe nzvimbo, senge inofambiswa, kodzero yekuzvitakura kana kurongeka uyezve pane usufraf yepfuma yakadaro kana kurudyi. Izvi zvinoreva kuti rubatso inogona kumisikidzwa pamotokari uye pamari yekugamuchira kubva kune vanechikwereti. Mukweretesi anogadzira rubatso kuitira kuti awane chengetedzo yekuti chikwereti chibhadharwe. Chibvumirano chichagumiswa pakati pewakweretesa (muridzi wemubhadharo) neakweretesa (iye anopa mhiko). Kana munhu ane chikwereti akasaenderana nemubhadharo wake wekubhadhara, mukweretesi ane kodzero yekutengesa imba yacho uye kuzadzisa zvaanozita nemari yacho. Kana uyo ane chikwereti akundikana kutevedzera zvaari kubhadhara, mukweretesi anogona kutengesa nzvimbo yacho ipapo. Maererano nechinyorwa 3: 248 Dutch Civil Code, hapana dare rematare rinodikanwa kune izvi, zvinoreva kuti kuurayiwa pakarepo kunoshanda. Zvakafanana nechikwereti, mukweretesi haabvumidzwe kugadzirisa nzvimbo pachinzvimbo icho chinopihwa kodzero yekororo; angangotengesa chivakwa uye azadzise chake chaanowana nemari yacho. Izvi zvinobva pane chinyorwa 3: 235 Dutch Civil Code. Muchokwadi, mukweretesi uyo ane kodzero yechivimbiso anotungamira pamusoro pevamwe vakweretesi muchiitiko chekubhuroka kana kumiswa kwekubhadhara. Nekudaro, zvinogona kuita kana mhiko yekutora kana yekusimbisa isina kuvimbiswa ikagumiswa.

5.2.1 Chivimbiso chakasarudzika uye chisungo chisina kusimbiswa

Chipo cheuchipo chinogumiswa kana imba yacho 'ikauya iri pasi pesimba remubambi kana wechitatu. Izvi zvinobva pane chinyorwa 3: 236 Dutch Civil Code. Izvi zvinoreva kuti icho chakapikirwa chinotumirwa kuna iye mukweretesi; mukweretesi zvechokwadi ane icho chivakwa chiri chake munguva iyo iyo rubatso inoramba ichipfuurira. Chipo cheuchipo chinosimbiswa nekuunza izvo zvakanaka pasi pesimba remukweretesi. Mukweretesi anofanira kutarisira imba uye anogona kuitisa kuchengetedza. Mari idzi dzekugadzirisa dzinofanirwa kudzoserwa nemukweretesi.

Kunze kwekunge yechibvumirano cheuchipo, isu tinewo rubatso rwusina kuvhurwa, rwunonzi rubvumirano rusina rwekugara zvakare. Izvi zvinoenderana nechinyorwa 3: 237 Dutch Civil Code. Kana chibvumirano chisina kusimbiswa chikasimbiswa, nzvimbo yacho haina kuiswa pasi peutongi, asi chibvumirano chinoti chigaro chisina kuvimbiswa chinosimudzwa. Ichi chinogona kunge chiri chiitiko chechokwadi uye chiitiko chakazvimirira. Nekudaro, iro rekunze reti rinofanirwa kunyoreswa kune notary kana kune mutero mutero. Zvisungo zvisinga zivikanwe zvinowanzoshandiswa nemakambani anoda kuumba rubatso pamushini. Kana muchina wacho waizounzwa uine muridzi wechikwereti, kambani ingadai isingakwanise kuita mabasa ayo ebhizinesi.

Chipo chekuva neuchenjeri chinogadzira kodzero yakasimba yekuchengetedza pane chisungo chisina kuvimbiswa. Kana chigaro chemuridzi chaitwa, iye waakapihwa anenge atova nacho chake midziyo. Izvi hazvirizvo kana chibvumirano chisina kusimbiswa chikamiswa. Muchiitiko ichocho, mukweretesi anofanira kugonesa mukweretesi kuti amupe iye pfuma. Ko mukweretesi aramba izvi here, zvingave zvakakosha kumanikidza kuendesa kwezvakanaka kuburikidza nedare. Musiyano uripo pakati pechinhu chaunobata nechisungo chisina kuvanzika unoitawo basa mukubhuroka uye kumiswa kwekubhadhara. Sezvatakurukurwa nezvazvo, mukweretesi ane kodzero yekuurayiwa nekukasira; anogona kutengesa nzvimbo yacho nekukasira kuitira kuti azadzise zvaari kukumbira. Zvakare, vabambi vezvisungo vano tungamira pamusoro pevamwe vakweretesi mukati mekubhuroka. Nekudaro, pane musiyano pakati pechipo chechiveve uye chisungo chisina kuvimbiswa. Vabati vehomwe yechivimbiso vane chekutungamira pamusoro pevane mutero kana mukweretesi achienda. Vabati vechisungo chisina kuvanzika havana chekutanga pamusoro pevane mutero; kodzero yevane mutero inokunda pamusoro pekodzero yemubati weasina kuvanzika panguva yekubhuroka kweanokweretesa. Chivimbiso chekuzvibata saka chinopa kuchengetedzwa kwakawanda panguva yekubhuroka pane chisungo chisina kuvimbiswa.

6. Mhedziso

Izvi zviri pamusoro zvinosanganisira kuti kune dzakawanda nzira dzekuwana kuchengetedzeka kwemari: dzinoverengeka chikwereti, escrow, (mubereki kambani) vimbiso, 403-chirevo, chikwereti uye rubatso. Muchokwadi, izvi kuchengetedza zvinogara zvichitaurwa muchibvumirano. Mamwe kuchengetedzwa kwemari kunogona kuve kwakarongedzwa nenzira isina-yakasununguka, zvinoenderana nezvinodiwa nemapato ivo pachavo, nepo zvimwe kuchengetedzwa kwemari kuri pasi pemutemo wezvemitemo. Semhedzisiro, nzira dzakasiyana siyana dzekuchengetedza mari zvese zvine zvakanakira uye zvisina kunaka. Izvi zvinoshanda kune ese mapato ari anoda kuchengetedzwa uye bato rinopa chengetedzo. Mamwe kuchengetedzwa kwemari inopa kuchengetedzwa kwakawanda kune iye mukweretesi kupfuura mamwe, asi anogona kuuya nezvimwe zvakaipa. Zvichienderana nemamiriro ezvinhu, fomu rakakodzera rekuchengetedza mari rinogona kupedzwa pakati pemapato.

[1] Escrow inowanzodaidzwa sevimbiso. Nekudaro, pasi pemutemo weDutch, pane nzira mbiri dzekuchengetedza mari dzinodudzira kuvimbisa muChirungu. Kuchengeta ichi chinyorwa chinonzwisisika, izwi rekuti escrow richashandiswa kune iyi kuchengetedzeka kwemari.

[2] Izwi rekuti 'guarantor' rinotaurwa nezvayo mune escrow uye mune garandii. Nekudaro, izvo zvinoreva izwi iri zvinoenderana nekodzero yekuchengetedza inosanganisirwa.

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