Mutoro wevatungamiriri muThe Netherlands

ziviso

Kutanga kambani yako yako chiitiko chinotaridzika kune vanhu vazhinji uye inouya neakawanda anobatsira. Nekudaro, chii (chenguva yemberi) mabhizinesi anoita seasingakoshesi, inyaya yekuti kutanga kambani kunouyawo nezvakashata nenjodzi. Kana kambani yakawanikwa nenzira yechikamu chepamutemo, njodzi yekuremerwa kwevatungamiriri iripo.

Sangano repamutemo mubato wakasarudzika wepamutemo une hunhu hwepamutemo. Naizvozvo, sangano repamutemo rinokwanisa kuita zviitwa pamutemo. Kuti uite izvi, sangano repamutemo rinoda rubatsiro. Sezvo sangano repamutemo riripo chete pabepa, harigone kushanda roga. Sangano repamutemo rinofanira kumiririrwa nemunhu wechisikigo. Muchokwadi, sangano repamutemo rinomiririrwa nebhodhi revatungamiriri. Vanotungamira vanogona kuita zviitiko zvepamutemo pachinzvimbo chesangano repamutemo. Iyo director inosunga chete zviri pamutemo sangano neizvi zviito. Mukutungamira, director haapihwe chikwereti chechikwereti chepamutemo nezvinhu zvake. Nekudaro, mune zvimwe zviitiko kukodzera kwevatungamiriri kunogona kuitika, mukati menyaya iyo director vanozove nemhosva pachavo. Kune mhando mbiri dzezviremera zvevatungamiriri: dhiriji remukati uye rekunze. Ichi chinyorwa chinokurukura zvikonzero zvakasiyana zvekuremara kwevatungamiriri.

Yemukati chikwereti chevatungamiriri

Mhosva yemukati zvinoreva kuti director anozobatwa nemhosva nesangano repamutemo pacharo. Chikwereti chemukati chinobva pane chinyorwa 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Mutungamiriri anogona kubatwa nemhosva mukati kana apedza mabasa ake nenzira isiri iyo. Kuzadzikiswa zvisirizvo kwemabasa kunofungidzirwa kana pakapomedzerwa mutungamiriri zvakanyanya. Izvi zvinoenderana nechinyorwa 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Zvakare, director anogona kunge anga asina hanya mukutora matanho kuitira kudzivirira kuitika kwehutongi husina kunaka. Ndepapi patinotaura nezvekupomera kwakakomba? Zvinoenderana nemutemo wenyaya izvi zvinoda kuongororwa nekutarisa mamiriro ese enyaya. [1]

Kuita zvinopesana nezvinyorwa zvekubatanidzwa kwesangano repamutemo rinotorwa semamiriro ezvinhu akaoma. Kana izvi zviri izvo, mutoro wevatungamiriri unozofungidzirwa. Nekudaro, director anogona kuunza kumberi chokwadi uye mamiriro anoratidza kuti kuita zvinopesana nezvinyorwa zvekubatanidzwa hakukonzere kupomera kwakakomba. Kana zvirizvo, mutongi anofanirwa kujekesa izvi mukutonga kwake. [2]

Dzakati wandei dhayeti yemukati uye chirevo

Mutoro unobva pane chinyorwa 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code inosunga kuti mukati mehungamiro vese vanotungamira vane mhosva yakakura. Naizvozvo kupomerwa kwakakura kuchaitwa kune iro Nekudaro, pane kusiyanisa nemutemo uyu. Mutungamiriri anogona kufutisa ('kureurura') iye pachake kubva kune chinzvimbo chevatungamiriri. Kuti aite kudaro, director vanofanirwa kuratidza kuti mhosva yavari kupomerwa haigone kupomedzerwa kwaari uye kuti anga asina hanya mukutora matanho kuitira kuti adzivirire zvisizvo. Izvi zvinobva pane chinyorwa 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Kukwidza pamusoro pekufungidzira hakugamuchirwe nyore. Director vanofanirwa kuratidza kuti vakatora matanho ese musimba rake kuti vadzivise kutadza. Iko kuremerwa kweuchapupu kunorara kune director.

Kupatsanurwa kwemabasa mukati mevatungamiriri 'bhodhi kunogona kuve kwakakosha kuona kuti kana kwete mutungamiriri ane mhosva. Nekudaro, mamwe mabasa anoonekwa semabasa akakosha kune rese revatungamiriri 'bhodhi. Vatungamiriri vanofanirwa kuziva zvimwe chokwadi nemamiriro ezvinhu. Kupatsanurwa kwemabasa hakuchinje izvi. Mukutaura, kusakwanisa haisi nzvimbo yekufungidzira. Vatungamiriri vanogona kutarisirwa kuziviswa nemazvo uye kubvunza mibvunzo. Zvisinei, mamiriro ezvinhu anogona kuitika umo izvi hazvigone kutarisirwa kumutungamiriri. [3] Naizvozvo, kuti angave kana kwete mutungamiriri anogona kuzviburitsa, zvinonyanya kubva pane chokwadi uye mamiriro enyaya yacho.

Kunze chikwereti chevatungamiriri

Chikwereti chekunze chinosanganisira kuti director anokamirwa kune wechitatu mapato. Chikwereti chekunze chakabaya chifukidziro chemubatanidzwa. Sangano repamutemo harisisiri rekuchengetedza vanhu chaivo avo ivo ndivo maerekita. Izvo zvikonzero zvepamutemo zvekuremerwa kwevatungamiriri vekunze ndeyekudaira zvisina kufanira, zvichibva pane chinyorwa 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code (mukati mekubhuroka) uye chiito chekushungurudzwa kunoenderana nechinyorwa 6: 162 Dutch Civil Code (kunze kwebhuroka. .

Chikwereti chekunze chevatungamiriri mukati mekubhuroka

Iko kuremedza kwevakuru vekunze mukati mekubhuroka kunoshanda kumakambani akasarudzika emitoro yezvikwereti (iyo Dutch BV uye NV). Izvi zvinobva pane chinyorwa 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code. Vanotungamira vanogona kuve nemhosva kana kubhuroka kuchikonzerwa nekusazvibata kana zvikanganiso zvevatariri. Iye mutariri, anomiririra vese vakweretesi, anofanirwa kuongorora kuti mhosva yevatungamiriri inogona here kushanda kana kwete.

Mhosva yekunze mukati mekubhuroka inogona kugamuchirwa kana bhodhi revatungamiriri raita zvisirizvo mabasa aro uye kuzadzikiswa kusiri iko kuri chikonzero chakakosha chekubhuroka. Iko kuremerwa kwehumbowo maererano nekuzadzikiswa kusakafanira kwemabasa kuri pamubati; anofanirwa kujekesa kuti director anofunga zvine musoro, pasi pemamiriro akafanana, angadai asina kuita nenzira iyi. [4] Zviito zvinokanganisa vakweretesi mushe zvinounza manejimendi asina kufanira Kushungurudzwa nevatungamiriri kunofanirwa kudzivirirwa.

Iyo paramende yakasanganisira kumwe kufungidzira kwehumbowo muchinyorwa 2: 138 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code. Kana bhodhi revatungamiriri risingateedzere nechinyorwa 2:10 Dutch Civil Code kana chinyorwa 2: 394 Dutch Civil Code, fungidziro yehumbowo inomuka. Mune ino kesi, iyo inofungidzirwa kuti manejimendi manejimendi anga ari chikonzero chakakosha chekubhuroka. Izvi zvinoendesa mutoro weuchapupu kumutungamiriri. Nekudaro, vatungamiriri vanogona kuratidza fungidziro yehumbowo. Kuti uite kudaro, director vanofanirwa kugadzira zvine musoro kuti kubhuroka hakuna kukonzerwa nehutongi husina kufanira, asi nezvimwe chokwadi nemamiriro ezvinhu. Mutungamiriri anofanira kuratidzawo kuti anga asiri kuregeredza mukutora matanho ekudzivirira hutungamiriri husina kunaka. [5] Uyezve, muchengeti anogona kungoisa chikumbiro kwenguva yemakore matatu pasati papo mari yekubhuroka. Izvi zvinobva pachinyorwa 2: 138 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code.

Huwandu hwekunze dhayeti uye exulpation

Wese maneja ane mhosva yekuzvibata kwakashata mukati mekubhuroka. Nekudaro, madhairekitori anogona kutiza uyu mutoro unoverengeka nekuzvifadza ivo pachavo. Izvi zvinobva pachinyorwa 2: 138 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code. Iye director anofanira kuratidza kuti kuzadzikiswa zvisirizvo kwemabasa hakugone kumisikidzwa kwaari. Anogonawo kunge asina kuregeredza mukutora matanho kuitira kudzivisa mhedzisiro yekuzadzikiswa kusakafanira kwemabasa. Iko kuremerwa kwehumbowo mukuzungunuka kuri pamutungamiriri. Izvi zvinobva muzvinyorwa zvataurwa pamusoro uye zvinogadziriswa mumutemo wazvino wedare reDutch Supreme Court. [6]

Chikwereti chekunze chinobva pachiitiko chekutambudza

Vanotungamira vanogona zvakare kuve nemhosva nekuda kweichi chiito chekutambudza, icho chinobva kuchinyorwa 6: 162 Dutch Civil Code. Chinyorwa ichi chinopa hwaro hwese hwekuremara. Mhosva yevakatungamira yakavakirwa pachiitiko chekutambudza inogona zvakare kukumbirwa nemunhu akweretesa munhu.

Dare Repamusorosoro reDutch rinosiyanisa mhando mbiri dzevatungamiriri 'mutoro zvichibva pachiito chekutambudza. Kutanga, chikwereti chinogona kugamuchirwa pahwaro hweiyo Beklamel standard. Panyaya iyi, director vakapinda muchibvumirano nevechitatu vakamirira kambani, nepo vaiziva kana zvine musoro kuti vaifanira kunzwisisa kuti kambani yaisakwanisa kutevedzera zvisungo zvinobva muchibvumirano ichi. [7] Rudzi rwechipiri rwechisimba kushushikana kwezviwanikwa. Mune ino kesi, director akakonzeresa kuti iyo kambani haisi kubhadhara vakweretesi vayo uye haikwanise kuzadzisa zvairi kubhadhara. Zvinoitwa nemutungamiriri hazvina hanya, zvekuti anogona kupomerwa mhosva huru. [8] Iko kuremerwa kwehumbowo mune izvi kurara kune mukweretesi.

Mutoro we director wepamutemo director

MuNetherlands, munhu wechisikigo uyewo zviri pamutemo mubato anogona kuve director wesangano repamutemo. Kuita kuti zvinhu zvive nyore, munhu wepanyama anova director anozodaidzwa kunzi director wezvemutemo uye chinzvimbo chepamutemo ari director anozodaidzwa kuti director director mundima iyi. Iyo nyaya yekuti mubato wepamutemo inogona kuve director, hazvireve kuti mhosva yevatungamiriri inogona kungodzivirirwa nekugadza mubatanidzwa wepamutemo semutungamiriri. Izvi zvinotorwa kubva kuchinyorwa 2:11 Dutch Civil Code. Kana director director akabatwa aine mhosva, ichi chinzvimbo chinowanikwawo nevatungamiriri vezvisikwa zvemukuru wedare iri.

Chisungo 2:11 Dutch Civil Code inoshanda kumamiriro ezvinhu umo mutoro wevatungamiriri unofungidzirwa zvichibva pachinyorwa 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code, chinyorwa 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code. Nekudaro, mibvunzo yakamuka kuti kana kwete chinyorwa 2:11 Dutch Civil Code inoshandawo kune mutoro wevatungamiriri zvichibva pachiito chekutambudza. Dare Repamusorosoro reDutch rakasarudza kuti izvi ndizvo chaizvo zvazviri. Mukutonga uku, Dare Repamusorosoro reDutch rinonongedzera kunhoroondo yepamutemo. Chinyorwa 2:11 Dutch Civil Code inovavarira kudzivirira vanhu venyama kubva mukuhwanda kuseri kwevakuru vezvinhu kuti vadzivise chikwereti. Izvi zvinosanganisira icho chinyorwa 2:11 Dutch Civil Code inoshanda kune ese kesi mune iyo director director anogona kupihwa mhosva zvichienderana nemutemo. [9]

Kuraswa kwevatariri vebhodhi

Mutoro weDirector unogona kudzoreredzwa nekupihwa discharge kune yevatariri bhodhi. Kuraswa kunoreva kuti mutemo webhodi revatungamiriri, sekuitwa kusvika panguva yekurasa, unobvumidzwa nebumbiro repamutemo. Discharge saka yekumuremara kwekuremerwa kwevanotungamira. Discharge harisi iro term rinogona kuwanikwa mumutemo, asi rinowanzo kuverengerwa muzvinyorwa zvekubatanidzwa kweyemutemo mubatanidzwa. Discharge ndeye yekubvisa yemukati yezvikwereti. Naizvozvo, kuraswa kunongoshanda kune chisungo chemukati. Matatu mapato achiri kugona kuendesa mhosva yevatungamiriri.

Kuburitswa kunoshanda chete kune chokwadi nemamiriro ezvinhu aizivikanwa kune vagovani panguva yekubvumidzwa. [10] Chikwereti chezvisingazivikanwe chokwadi chichava chiripo. Naizvozvo, kuburitswa hakusi kuzana muzana kwakachengeteka uye hakupi vimbiso kune vatungamiriri.

mhedziso

Bhizimusi rezvemabhizimusi rinogona kuita basa rakaoma uye rinonakidza, asi zvinosuwisa kuti zvinouya nenjodzi. Mabhizimusi mazhinji anotenda kuti anogona kusabvisa dhizari nekutanga chibvumirano chepamutemo. Aya mabhizimusi achave ari mukukanganisa; pasi pemamwe mamiriro ezvinhu, mhosva yevatungamiriri inogona kushanda. Izvi zvinogona kuva nemhedzisiro yakakura; maneja anozobhadhara zvikwereti zvekambani nezvinhu zvake zvakavanzika. Naizvozvo, njodzi dzinobva mukuremara kwevatungamiriri hazvifanirwe kurerutswa. Kwave kuri kuchenjera kuti vatungamiriri vemasangano epamutemo vatevedzere zvese zvakataurwa pamutemo uye kuti vatarise sangano repamutemo nenzira yakavhurika uye nemaune.

Iyo yakakwana vhezheni yechinyorwa ichi inowanikwa kuburikidza neiyi link

udza mashoko

Kana iwe uine mibvunzo kana makomendi mushure mekuverenga ichi chinyorwa, ndapota inzwa wakasununguka kubata Maxim Hodak, gweta pa Law & More Via [email inodzivirirwa], kana Tom Meevis, gweta pa Law & More Via [email inodzivirirwa], kana kufona +31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2002: AE7011 (Berghuizer Papierfabriek).

[3] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2010: BN6929.

[4] ECLI: NL: HR: 2001: AB2053 (Panmo).

[5] ECLI: NL: HR: 2007: BA6773 (Bhuruu Nyanya).

[6] ECLI: NL: HR: 2015: 522 (Glascentrale Beheer BV).

[7] ECLI: NL: HR: 1989: AB9521 (Beklamel).

[8] ECLI: NL: HR: 2006: AZ0758 (Ontvanger / Roelofsen).

[9] ECLI: NL: HR: 2017: 275.

[10] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven); ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM2332.

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