Mutoro wevatungamiriri muThe Netherlands

ziviso

Kutanga kambani yako yako chiitiko chinotaridzika kune vanhu vazhinji uye inouya neakawanda anobatsira. Nekudaro, chii (chenguva yemberi) mabhizinesi anoita seasingakoshesi, inyaya yekuti kutanga kambani kunouyawo nezvakashata nenjodzi. Kana kambani yakawanikwa nenzira yechikamu chepamutemo, njodzi yekuremerwa kwevatungamiriri iripo.

Sangano repamutemo mubato wakasarudzika wepamutemo une hunhu hwepamutemo. Naizvozvo, sangano repamutemo rinokwanisa kuita zviitwa pamutemo. Kuti uite izvi, sangano repamutemo rinoda rubatsiro. Sezvo sangano repamutemo riripo chete pabepa, harigone kushanda roga. Sangano repamutemo rinofanira kumiririrwa nemunhu wechisikigo. Muchokwadi, sangano repamutemo rinomiririrwa nebhodhi revatungamiriri. Vanotungamira vanogona kuita zviitiko zvepamutemo pachinzvimbo chesangano repamutemo. Iyo director inosunga chete zviri pamutemo sangano neizvi zviito. Mukutungamira, director haapihwe chikwereti chechikwereti chepamutemo nezvinhu zvake. Nekudaro, mune zvimwe zviitiko kukodzera kwevatungamiriri kunogona kuitika, mukati menyaya iyo director vanozove nemhosva pachavo. Kune mhando mbiri dzezviremera zvevatungamiriri: dhiriji remukati uye rekunze. Ichi chinyorwa chinokurukura zvikonzero zvakasiyana zvekuremara kwevatungamiriri.

Yemukati chikwereti chevatungamiriri

Chikwereti chemukati chinoreva kuti director achazopihwa mutoro neyepamutemo sangano pacharo. Chikwereti chemukati chinobva pane chinyorwa 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Iye director anogona kubatwa nemutoro wemukati medu kana akazadzisa mabasa ake nenzira isiriyo. Kusazadzisa kwakakwana kwemabasa kunofungidzirwa kana kupomerwa kwakanyanya kunogona kuitwa kunopesana nemukuru. Izvi zvakavakirwa pane chinyorwa 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Uyezve, director vanogona kunge vasina kuve vasina hanya mukutora matanho kuitira kudzivirira kuitika kwehutongi husina kunaka. Patinotaura nezve kupomerwa kwakasimba? Zvinoenderana nemutemo wedare izvi zvinoda kuongororwa nekutora mamiriro ese ezvinhu muchiitiko.[1]

Kuita zvinopesana nezvinyorwa zvekubatanidzwa kwesangano repamutemo kunorongwa sedanho rakakura. Kana izvi zvirizvo, mutoro wevakuru uchaita musimboti. Nekudaro, director vanogona kuunza pamberi chokwadi nemamiriro ezvinhu anoratidza kuti kuita zvinopesana nezvinyorwa zvekubatanidzwa hakuite kupomera kwakasimba. Kana izvi zvirizvo, mutongi anofanira kubatanidza pachena izvi mukutonga kwake.[2]

Dzakati wandei dhayeti yemukati uye chirevo

Mutoro unobva pane chinyorwa 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code inosunga kuti mukati mehungamiro vese vanotungamira vane mhosva yakakura. Naizvozvo kupomerwa kwakakura kuchaitwa kune iro Nekudaro, pane kusiyanisa nemutemo uyu. Mutungamiriri anogona kufutisa ('kureurura') iye pachake kubva kune chinzvimbo chevatungamiriri. Kuti aite kudaro, director vanofanirwa kuratidza kuti mhosva yavari kupomerwa haigone kupomedzerwa kwaari uye kuti anga asina hanya mukutora matanho kuitira kuti adzivirire zvisizvo. Izvi zvinobva pane chinyorwa 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Kukwidza pamusoro pekufungidzira hakugamuchirwe nyore. Director vanofanirwa kuratidza kuti vakatora matanho ese musimba rake kuti vadzivise kutadza. Iko kuremerwa kweuchapupu kunorara kune director.

Kupatsanurana kwemabasa mukati mebhodi revatungamiriri kunogona kuve kwakakosha kuti uone kana director asina mhosva. Nekudaro, mamwe mabasa anoonekwa semabasa akakosha kune iyo bhodhi revatungamiriri. Vanotungamira vanofanira kuziva nezvechokwadi uye mamiriro ezvinhu. Kupatsanurwa kwemabasa hakuchinje izvi. Muchokwadi, kusakwanisa haisi nzvimbo yekufungidzira. Vanotungamira vanogona kutarisirwa kuziviswa nemazvo uye kubvunza mibvunzo. Nekudaro, mamiriro ezvinhu anogona kuitika umo izvi zvisingatarisirwe kumutungamiriri.[3] Naizvozvo, kunyangwe kana director vasingabudise pachena, zvinonyanya kuvimba nezvechokwadi nemamiriro ezvinhu emhosva.

Kunze chikwereti chevatungamiriri

Chikwereti chekunze chinosanganisira kuti director anokamirwa kune wechitatu mapato. Chikwereti chekunze chakabaya chifukidziro chemubatanidzwa. Sangano repamutemo harisisiri rekuchengetedza vanhu chaivo avo ivo ndivo maerekita. Izvo zvikonzero zvepamutemo zvekuremerwa kwevatungamiriri vekunze ndeyekudaira zvisina kufanira, zvichibva pane chinyorwa 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code (mukati mekubhuroka) uye chiito chekushungurudzwa kunoenderana nechinyorwa 6: 162 Dutch Civil Code (kunze kwebhuroka. .

Chikwereti chekunze chevatungamiriri mukati mekubhuroka

Iko kuremedza kwevakuru vekunze mukati mekubhuroka kunoshanda kumakambani akasarudzika emitoro yezvikwereti (iyo Dutch BV uye NV). Izvi zvinobva pane chinyorwa 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code. Vanotungamira vanogona kuve nemhosva kana kubhuroka kuchikonzerwa nekusazvibata kana zvikanganiso zvevatariri. Iye mutariri, anomiririra vese vakweretesi, anofanirwa kuongorora kuti mhosva yevatungamiriri inogona here kushanda kana kwete.

Iko kune chikwereti kwekunze mukati mekubhuroka kunogona kugamuchirwa kana bhodhi revatungamiriri rave kuita zvisizvo basa raro uye kuzadzikiswa kwakasarudzika sezviri pachena chikonzero chakakosha chekubhuroka. Iko kuremerwa kweuchapupu maererano neichi chisina kukodzera kuzadzikiswa kwemabasa chiri pasi pemubatiri; anofanira kuita kuti zvinzwisisike kuti manejimendi anofunga zvine hungwaru, mumamiriro akafanana, angadai asina kuita nenzira iyi.[4] Zviitwa zvinodzikisira vakweretesi musimboti zvinounza kutongwa zvisina kunaka. Kushungurudzwa nevatungamiriri kunofanira kudzivirirwa.

Iyo paramende yakabatanidza zvimwe zvekufungidzira zveuchapupu mune yezvinyorwa 2: 138 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code. Kana bhodhi revatungamiriri hariteedzeri chirevo 2:10 Dutch Civil Code kana chinyorwa 2: 394 Dutch Civil Code, fungidziro yeuchapupu inomuka. Mune izvi zviitiko, zvinofungidzirwa kuti kutonga zvisina kukodzera kwave kuri yakakosha kubhuroka. Izvi zvinoshandura mutoro weuchapupu kune director. Nekudaro, vatungamiriri vanogona kupokana nekufungidzira kweuchapupu. Kuti uite kudaro, director vanofanirwa kuita kuti zvive pachena kuti kubhuroka hakuna kukonzerwa nekusavimbika manejita, asi nezvimwe chokwadi uye mamiriro ezvinhu. Director vanofanirawo kuratidza kuti anga asina kuregeredza mukutora matanho kuitira kuti adzivirire husina kunaka[5] Uyezve, iyo curator inogona kungoisa faji yenguva yemakore matatu pamberi pekubhuroka. Izvi zvinobva pane chinyorwa 2: 138 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code.

Huwandu hwekunze dhayeti uye exulpation

Mutungamiriri wega wega ane mhosva yakakura pakuita sekutonga kwakashata mukati mekubhuroka. Nekudaro, vatungamiriri vanogona kupukunyuka izvi zvakati wandei nekuzvikanda ivo pachavo. Izvi zvinobva pane chinyorwa 2: 138 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 2: 248 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code. Director vanofanirwa kuratidza kuti kuzadzikiswa kwakashata kwemabasa hakugone kumisidzana naye. Anogona zvakare kunge asina kuve asina hanya mukutora matanho kuti adzivise mhedzisiro yekuzadziswa kwemabasa. Iko kuremerwa kweuchapupu mukufutisa kurara kune director. Izvi zvinobva mune zvinyorwa zvataurwa pamusoro uye zvinosimbiswa mune ichangopfuura mutemo wedare reDutch Supreme Court.[6]

Chikwereti chekunze chinobva pachiitiko chekutambudza

Vanotungamira vanogona zvakare kuve nemhosva nekuda kweichi chiito chekutambudza, icho chinobva kuchinyorwa 6: 162 Dutch Civil Code. Chinyorwa ichi chinopa hwaro hwese hwekuremara. Mhosva yevakatungamira yakavakirwa pachiitiko chekutambudza inogona zvakare kukumbirwa nemunhu akweretesa munhu.

Dare Repamusoro reDutch rinosiyanisa mhando mbiri dzemutungamiriri wevatungamiriri kunoenderana nechiitiko chekushungurudzwa. Kutanga, dhinari inogona kugamuchirwa pahwaro hweBeklamel standard. Muchiitiko ichi, director vakapinda muchibvumirano nemumwe wechitatu akamiririra kambani, nepo aiziva kana chikonzero chaicho aifanira kunzwisisa kuti kambani haigoni kutevedzera zvisungo zvinobva muchibvumirano ichi.[7] Rudzi rwechipiri rwechisungo, kushushikana kwezviwanikwa. Mune izvi zviitiko, maneja akakonzera chokwadi chekuti kambani haisi kubhadhara vakweretesi vake uye iri kutadza kuita zvairi kubhadhara. Zviito zvemutungamiriri hazvina hanya, kuti kupomerwa kwakanyanya kunogona kuitika pamusoro pake.[8] Iko kuremerwa kweuchapupu mune izvi kunorara neakweretwa.

Mutoro we director wepamutemo director

MuNetherlands, munhu wechisikigo uyewo zviri pamutemo mubato anogona kuve director wesangano repamutemo. Kuita kuti zvinhu zvive nyore, munhu wepanyama anova director anozodaidzwa kunzi director wezvemutemo uye chinzvimbo chepamutemo ari director anozodaidzwa kuti director director mundima iyi. Iyo nyaya yekuti mubato wepamutemo inogona kuve director, hazvireve kuti mhosva yevatungamiriri inogona kungodzivirirwa nekugadza mubatanidzwa wepamutemo semutungamiriri. Izvi zvinotorwa kubva kuchinyorwa 2:11 Dutch Civil Code. Kana director director akabatwa aine mhosva, ichi chinzvimbo chinowanikwawo nevatungamiriri vezvisikwa zvemukuru wedare iri.

Chinyorwa 2: Dutch Civil Code inoshanda kumamiriro ezvinhu ayo chinzvimbo chevatungamiriri chinofungidzirwa pamusoro penyaya 11: 2 Dutch Civil Code, chinyorwa 9: 2 Dutch Civil Code uye chinyorwa 138: 2 Dutch Civil Code. Nekudaro, mibvunzo yakamuka kuti kana kwete chinyorwa 248:2 Danish Civil Code inoshandawo kune chinzvimbo chevatungamiriri maererano nechinhu chechitambudzo. Dare Repamusoro reDutch rakasarudza kuti izvi ndizvo chaizvo. Mukutongwa uku, Dare Repamusoro reDutch rinonongedzera kune nhoroondo yepamutemo. Chinyorwa 11: Danish Civil Code inovavarira kudzivirira vanhu vakasikwa kuvanda kumashure kwevatungamiriri vechikwata kuitira kuti vadzivirirwe. Izvi zvinechekuita kuti chinyorwa 2:11 Danish Civil Code inoshanda kune zvese zviitiko umo maneja wesangano anogona kuve nemhosva zvichibva pamutemo.[9]

Kuraswa kwevatariri vebhodhi

Mutoro weDirector unogona kudzoreredzwa nekupihwa discharge kune yevatariri bhodhi. Kuraswa kunoreva kuti mutemo webhodi revatungamiriri, sekuitwa kusvika panguva yekurasa, unobvumidzwa nebumbiro repamutemo. Discharge saka yekumuremara kwekuremerwa kwevanotungamira. Discharge harisi iro term rinogona kuwanikwa mumutemo, asi rinowanzo kuverengerwa muzvinyorwa zvekubatanidzwa kweyemutemo mubatanidzwa. Discharge ndeye yekubvisa yemukati yezvikwereti. Naizvozvo, kuraswa kunongoshanda kune chisungo chemukati. Matatu mapato achiri kugona kuendesa mhosva yevatungamiriri.

Kuraswa kunongoshanda kune chokwadi uye mamiriro ezvinhu aive achizivikanwa kune vagovani panguva iyo basa raakapihwa.[10] Mhosva yezvinhu zvisingazivikanwe icharamba iripo. Naizvozvo, dhisiki haisi yezana muzana yakachengeteka uye haina kupa vimbiso kune vanotungamira.

mhedziso

Bhizimusi rezvemabhizimusi rinogona kuita basa rakaoma uye rinonakidza, asi zvinosuwisa kuti zvinouya nenjodzi. Mabhizimusi mazhinji anotenda kuti anogona kusabvisa dhizari nekutanga chibvumirano chepamutemo. Aya mabhizimusi achave ari mukukanganisa; pasi pemamwe mamiriro ezvinhu, mhosva yevatungamiriri inogona kushanda. Izvi zvinogona kuva nemhedzisiro yakakura; maneja anozobhadhara zvikwereti zvekambani nezvinhu zvake zvakavanzika. Naizvozvo, njodzi dzinobva mukuremara kwevatungamiriri hazvifanirwe kurerutswa. Kwave kuri kuchenjera kuti vatungamiriri vemasangano epamutemo vatevedzere zvese zvakataurwa pamutemo uye kuti vatarise sangano repamutemo nenzira yakavhurika uye nemaune.

Iyo yakakwana vhezheni yechinyorwa ichi inowanikwa kuburikidza neiyi link

udza mashoko

If you have questions or comments after reading this article, please feel free to contact Maxim Hodak, lawyer at Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or Tom Meevis, lawyer at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2002: AE7011 (Berghuizer Papierfabriek).

[3] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2010: BN6929.

[4] ECLI: NL: HR: 2001: AB2053 (Panmo).

[5] ECLI: NL: HR: 2007: BA6773 (Blue Tomato).

[6] ECLI: NL: HR: 2015: 522 (Glascentrale Beheer BV).

[7] ECLI: NL: HR: 1989: AB9521 (Beklamel).

[8] ECLI: NL: HR: 2006: AZ0758 (Ontvanger / Roelofsen).

[9] ECLI: NL: HR: 2017: 275.

[10] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven); ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM2332.

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