Kuzivikanwa nekusimbisa mutongo weRussia wekuparadza

Mumakambani mazhinji emunyika pamwe neezvekunze ekudyidzana, vanowanzo tenderera kuronga gadziriso kugadzirisa bhizinesi. Izvi zvinoreva kuti nyaya yacho ichaiswa kune anokwenenzvera panzvimbo pemutongi wedare renyika. Kuti kuitisa mubairo weanopokana kuti upedziswe, zvinofanirwa kuti mutongi wenyika yekushandisa ape exequatur. An exequatur inoreva kucherechedzwa kwekukwikwidza mubairo uye yakaenzana kumutongo wepamutemo iyo inogona kusimbiswa kana kuurayiwa. Mitemo yekucherechedzwa nekusimbisa mutongo wekunze inodzorwa muNew York Convention. Musangano uyu wakagamuchirwa nemusangano weUnited Nations wezvematongerwo enyika musi wa 10 June 1958 muNew York. Musangano uyu wakanyanya kupedziswa kudzora nekufambisa maitiro ekucherechedzwa nekusimbisa mutongo wekunze wepamutemo pakati pezvisungo nyika.

Parizvino, kokorodzano yeNew York ine mapato gumi nemasere.

Kana zvasvika pakuzivikanwa nekumisikidzwa kunoenderana nechinyorwa V (1) cheNew York Convention, mutongi anotenderwa kuve nesimba rehungwaru mumatare akasarudzika. Muchokwadi, mutongi haabvumidzwe kuongorora kana kutsigira zviri mukati menyaya yemutongo mumatare zvine chekuita nekuzivikanwa nekusimbisa. Nekudaro, pane kunze kwakanangana nezvakakomba zviratidzo zvekuremara kwakakosha pamutongo wepamutemo, kuitira kuti irege kutongwa sedare rinotonga. Chimwe chakasarudzika kumutemo uyu chinoshanda kana zvichikwanira zvirinani kuti kana kutongwa kwakaringana, zvaizove zvakakonzera kuparadzwa kwemutongo wepamutemo. Iyi inotevera nyaya yakakosha yeDare Repamusoro inoratidza kuti kusiana kunogona kushandiswa mumiitiro yezuva nezuva. Mubvunzo mukuru ndewkuti kana mubairo wekukwikwidza wakapihwa nedare repamutemo reRussia, unogona kuramba uchipfuura unozivikanwa uye nenzira yekumanikidza muNetherlands.

Kuzivikanwa nekusimbisa mutongo weRussia wekuparadza

Mhosva iyi ndeyavo yeRussia zviri pamutemo simbi inogadzira nyika yose chigadzirwa chinogadzira OJSC Novolipetsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat (NLMK). Iye anogadzira simbi ndiye mushandirwi akakura weRussia mudunhu reLipetsk. Iyo yakawanda yezvikamu zvekambani ndezvayo neRussia bhizinesi VS Lisin. Lisin zvakare muridzi weiyo transshipment ports paSt. Petersburg neTufall. Lisin akabata chinzvimbo chakakwirira kukambani yeRussia state United United Kuvaka Corporation uye zvakare ane zvinofarira mukati meRussia state kambani Freight One, iri kambani yechitima. Kubva pachibvumirano cheKutenga, icho chinosanganisira danho reArbitration, mapato ese maviri akabvumirana kutenga nekutengesa zvikamu zveNLMK zveLisin kuenda kuNLMK. Mushure mekupokana uye nekunonoka kubhadhara kwemutengo wekutenga pachinzvimbo cheNLKM, Lisin anosarudza kuunza nyaya iyi kuInternational Commerce Arbitration Court kuChamber of Commerce uye indasitiri yeRussian Federation uye inoda kubhadharisa mutengo wekutenga migove, izvo zvinoenderana kwaari, zviuru gumi nezvinomwe zvemabharubhi. NLMK inotaura mukudzivirira kwake kuti Lisin yakatogamuchira mubhadharo wepamberi izvo zvinoreva kuti huwandu hwemutengo wekutenga hwachinja kuita mabhiriyoni mashanu nemazana mapfumbamwe emadhora.

Kurume 2011 nzira yekupara mhosva yakatanga kupokana naLisin nekufungidzirwa kwekunyepedzera sechikamu chekutengeserana kwekugoverana neNLMK uyezve nezve fungidziro yekushatisa dare reArbitration pamhosva inopomerwa NLMK. Zvisinei, zvichemo zvacho hazvina kutungamira mukupomera mhosva.

Dare reArbitration, apo nyaya iri pakati peLisin neNLMK yaunzwa kuti inyore, yakapa mutongo weNLMK kuti ubhadhare mutengo wakasara wekutenga wemasendi mazana masere nemakumi masere nemapfumbamwe uye wakaramba zvikumbiro zvevaviri ava Mutengo wekutenga unoverengerwa kunoenderana nehafu yemutengo wekutengwa naLisin (8,9 mabhirioni rubles) uye mutengo wakaverengerwa neNLMK (22,1 mabhirioni ruble). Nezve mubhadharo wepamberi dare rakatambidza NLMK kubhadhara mabhiriyoni 1,4 emadhora. Kukwikwidza kupokana nesarudzo kwakaitwa nedare reArbitration hakugone uye NLMK yakati, zvichifungidzirwa nezvekupomerwa kwekunyepedzera kwakaitwa naLisin, kuparadzwa kwemubvumirano yekukwikwidza neArbitrazh Dare reguta reMoscow. Icho chirevo chakapihwa uye mubairo weanopokana uchaparara.

Lisin haazomiririre uye anoda kutevera chengetedzo yekuchengetedza pane masheya anoitiswa neNLMK muguta rayo chairo NLMK yepasi rose BV muAmsterdam. Kupararira kwechirevo ichi kwakaita kuti kuve kusingakwanise kutevedzera chengetedzo muRussia. Naizvozvo, Lisin chikumbiro chekucherechedzwa nekusimbiswa kwemubhadharo wekukwikwidza. Chikumbiro chake chakarambwa. Zvichienderana nekokorodzano yeNew York zvinozivikanwa kune inokwanisa mvumo yenyika iyo yehurongwa hwekutonga mubairo wekutonga wakavakirwa pane (mune iyi nyaya matare eRussia) kusarudza mukati memutemo wenyika, pamusoro pekuparadzwa kweArbitration awards. Muchokwadi, dare rekumanikidza haribvumidzwe kuongorora aya maArbitration awards. Dare muInterlocutory Proceedings rinotarisa kuti mubairo wekukwikwidza haugone kuurayiwa, nekuti hauchiripo.

Lisin akaisa kukwikwidza kupokana nemutongo uyu kuAmsterdam Court of Appeal. Dare rinofunga kuti muitiro mubairo wakatemerwa wekukwikwidza haawanzo kutora mukufunga kwe chero kuzivikanwa nekusimbisa kunze kwekunge iri mhosva yakasarudzika. Pane imwe nyaya yakasarudzika kana paine zvinoratidza kwakasimba kuti mutongo wedare reRussia unoshaya urema hwakakosha, kuitira kuti izvi zvisaongororwe sedare rinotonga. Dare reAmsterdam reDzimhosva haritarise iyi nyaya sedare.

Lisin akaisa chikumbiro mukukumbira kupokana nedare. Sekureva kwaLisin dare rakundikanawo kukoshesa simba rekutonga rakapihwa mudare zvichibva pachinyorwa V (1) (e) chinotarisa kana mutongo wekuparadza wekunze uchikurira maitiro ekumanikidza mubairo wehutongi muNetherlands. Dare Repamusoro rakafananidza iro rechokwadi rechirungu neechiFrench chinyorwa cheGungano. Idzi shanduro dzese dzinoita sedzine dudziro dzakasiyana pamusoro pesimba rekutonga rakapihwa mudare. Shanduro yeChirungu yechinyorwa V (1) (e) inotaura zvinotevera:

  1. Kucherechedzwa nekusimbisa mubairo kunogona kuramba, pachikumbiro chebato riri kupikiswa naro, chete kana iro bato rinopa kune anokwanisa masimba uko kuchizivikanwa nekumisikidzwa, chiratidzo chekuti:

(...)

  1. e) Mubairo uyu hausati uchisunga mapato, kana kuiswa parutivi kana kumisikidzwa nemvumo yenyika ine mukurumbira wenyika.

Shanduro yeFrench yechinyorwa V (1) (e) inotaura zvinotevera:

1. La reconnaissance et l'exécution de la mutsara ne seront anoramba, e des la de la partie contre laquelle elle est invoquée, que si cette partie fournit à l'autorité compétente du pays où la reconnaissance et l'exécution sont demandées la preuve:

(...)

  1. e) Que la phrase keest pas encore devenue bindatoire shed les les vyama kubva parinenge richitiza rinomira parutivi, risati ravepo, rinobva rasvika. ”

Simba rekuzvisarudzira rechirungu ('inogona kurambwa') rinoratidzika kunge rakakura kupfuura iro Bhaibheri reFrance ('ne seront refusées que si'). Dare Repamusoro rakawana kududzira kwakasiyana mune zvimwe zviwanikwa nezve mashandisiro esangano.

Dare Repamusoro rinoyedza kujekesa kuturikira kwakasiyana nekuwedzera dudziro yayo. Izvi zvinoreva kuti masimba esarudzo anogona kungoiswa chete kana paine ivhu rekuramba zvinoenderana neSungano. Pane iyi nyaya yaive iri pasi pekuramba ichitaura nezve 'kuparadzwa kwemubayiro weArbitration'. Izvo zviri kuLisin kuratidza maererano nechokwadi uye mamiriro ezvinhu iyo iyo gasi rekuramba haina hwaro.

Dare repamusoro rinogovana zvakakwana maonero eDare reDzimhosva. Panogona kuve nemhosva yakakosha zvichienderana neDare Repamusoro apo kuparadzwa kwemubhadharo wekukakavara kwakavakirwa pazvikonzero zvisingapindirani nezvikonzero zvekuramba chinyorwa V (1). Kunyangwe dare reDutch rakapihwa simba rekuchenjera kana pakaonekwa uye pakasimbiswa, zvakadaro hazvisi kunyorera mutongo wekuparadza mune iyi nyaya. Kupikisa kunoitwa naLisin hakuna mukana wekubudirira.

Mutongo uyu wedare repamusoro unopa dudziro yakajeka nenzira ipi chinyorwa V (1) cheNew York musangano unofanirwa kududzirwa mukati mechiremera chesarudzo chakapihwa kudare panguva yekucherechedzwa nekusimbisa mutongo wekuparadzwa. Izvi zvinoreva, muchidimbu, kuti chete muzviitiko zvikuru kuparadzwa kwekutonga kunogona kudarika.

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