Kuzivikanwa nekusimbisa mutongo weRussia wekuparadza

Mune makondirakiti mazhinji emunyika neepasi rese ekutengeserana, vanowanzo tarisa arbitrage kugadzirisa kusawirirana kwebhizinesi. Izvi zvinoreva kuti nyaya inozopihwa mutongi panzvimbo pemutongi wedare renyika. Kuti kuzadzikiswa kweye arbitration mubairo upedziswe, zvinotarisirwa kuti mutongi wenyika yekushandisa ape exequatur. Exequatur inoreva kuzivikanwa kweyekupihwa mubairo uye zvakaenzana nemutemo mutongo unogona kumanikidzwa kana kuurayiwa. Mitemo yekucherechedzwa nekusimbiswa kwemutongo wekunze inodzorwa muNew York Convention. Musangano uyu wakagamuchirwa nemusangano weUnited Nations wezvematongerwo enyika musi wa10 Chikumi 1958 kuNew York. Musangano uyu wakazopedziswa kudzora nekurerutsa maitiro ekucherechedzwa nekusimbisiswa kwemutongo wekunze kwenyika pakati pekontrakiti nyika.

Parizvino, musangano weNew York une mapato zana nemakumi mashanu nemapfumbamwe enyika

Kana zvasvika pakucherechedzwa nekusimbiswa kunoenderana nechinyorwa V (1) cheNew York Convention, mutongi anotenderwa kuve nesimba rekuziva mune akasarudzika kesi. Mukutaura, mutongi haatenderwe kuongorora kana kuburitsa zvirimo zvemutongo wepamutemo mumatare ane chekuita nekuremekedzwa. Zvisinei, pane zvisaririra zvine chekuita nezvakakomba zvinoratidza kukanganisa kwakakosha pamutongo wepamutemo, zvekuti haugone kutarisirwa semutongo wakaringana. Kumwe kusarudzika kumutemo uyu kunoshanda kana zvichikwanisika kuti kana paine kutongwa kwakanaka, zvaizotungamira mukuparadzwa kwemutongo wepamutemo. Iyi inotevera yakakosha nyaya yeHigh Council inoratidza kusvika papi iyo yakasarudzika inogona kushandiswa mukuita kwemazuva ese. Mubvunzo mukuru ndewekuti kana mubairo wekuyananisa wakaparadzwa nedare repamutemo reRussia, uchiri kugona kupfuudza kuzivikanwa nekusimbisa maitiro muNetherlands.

Kuzivikanwa nekusimbisa mutongo weRussia wekuparadza

Mhosva iri pamusoro pesangano repamutemo reRussia iro rinogadzira simbi pasi rose rinodanwa OJSC Novolipetsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat (NLMK). Mugadziri wesimbi ndiye mushandirwi mukurusa munharaunda yeRussia yeLipetsk. Ruzhinji rwezvikamu zvekambani ndezve muzvinabhizinesi weRussia VS Lisin. Lisin ndiye zvakare muridzi wezviteshi zvekufambisa kuSt. Petersburg neTuapse. Lisin ane chinzvimbo chepamusoro kukambani yeRussia nyika United Shipbuilding Corporation uye zvakare ane zvido mukambani yeRussia nyika yeFreight One, inova kambani yezvitima. Zvichienderana neChipatimendi Chekutenga, icho chinosanganisira nzira yeArbitration, mapato ese akabvumirana pakutenga nekutengesa zvikamu zveNLMK zveLisin kuNLMK. Mushure mekukakavara uye kunonoka kubhadhara mutengo wekutenga vakamirira NLKM, Lisin anosarudza kuunza nyaya iyi pamberi peInternational Commerce Arbitration Court kuChamber of Commerce neindasitiri yeRussia Federation uye inoda kubhadharwa kwemasheya mutengo wekutenga, zvinoenderana kwaari, mabhiriyoni 14,7. NLMK inotaura mukuzvidzivirira kwayo kuti Lisin akatowana mubhadharo wepamberi zvinoreva kuti huwandu hwemutengo wekutenga hwachinja kuita mabhiriyoni mashanu nezviuru mazana mashanu emaabhuru.

Kurume 2011 nzira yekupara mhosva yakatanga kupokana naLisin nekufungidzirwa kwekunyepedzera sechikamu chekutengeserana kwekugoverana neNLMK uyezve nezve fungidziro yekushatisa dare reArbitration pamhosva inopomerwa NLMK. Zvisinei, zvichemo zvacho hazvina kutungamira mukupomera mhosva.

Dare reArbitration, apo nyaya iri pakati peLisin neNLMK yaunzwa kuti inyore, yakapa mutongo weNLMK kuti ubhadhare mutengo wakasara wekutenga wemasendi mazana masere nemakumi masere nemapfumbamwe uye wakaramba zvikumbiro zvevaviri ava Mutengo wekutenga unoverengerwa kunoenderana nehafu yemutengo wekutengwa naLisin (8,9 mabhirioni rubles) uye mutengo wakaverengerwa neNLMK (22,1 mabhirioni ruble). Nezve mubhadharo wepamberi dare rakatambidza NLMK kubhadhara mabhiriyoni 1,4 emadhora. Kukwikwidza kupokana nesarudzo kwakaitwa nedare reArbitration hakugone uye NLMK yakati, zvichifungidzirwa nezvekupomerwa kwekunyepedzera kwakaitwa naLisin, kuparadzwa kwemubvumirano yekukwikwidza neArbitrazh Dare reguta reMoscow. Icho chirevo chakapihwa uye mubairo weanopokana uchaparara.

Lisin haazomiririre uye anoda kutevera chengetedzo yekuchengetedza pane masheya anoitiswa neNLMK muguta rayo chairo NLMK yepasi rose BV muAmsterdam. Kupararira kwechirevo ichi kwakaita kuti kuve kusingakwanise kutevedzera chengetedzo muRussia. Naizvozvo, Lisin chikumbiro chekucherechedzwa nekusimbiswa kwemubhadharo wekukwikwidza. Chikumbiro chake chakarambwa. Zvichienderana nekokorodzano yeNew York zvinozivikanwa kune inokwanisa mvumo yenyika iyo yehurongwa hwekutonga mubairo wekutonga wakavakirwa pane (mune iyi nyaya matare eRussia) kusarudza mukati memutemo wenyika, pamusoro pekuparadzwa kweArbitration awards. Muchokwadi, dare rekumanikidza haribvumidzwe kuongorora aya maArbitration awards. Dare muInterlocutory Proceedings rinotarisa kuti mubairo wekukwikwidza haugone kuurayiwa, nekuti hauchiripo.

Lisin akaisa kukwikwidza kupokana nemutongo uyu kuAmsterdam Court of Appeal. Dare rinofunga kuti muitiro mubairo wakatemerwa wekukwikwidza haawanzo kutora mukufunga kwe chero kuzivikanwa nekusimbisa kunze kwekunge iri mhosva yakasarudzika. Pane imwe nyaya yakasarudzika kana paine zvinoratidza kwakasimba kuti mutongo wedare reRussia unoshaya urema hwakakosha, kuitira kuti izvi zvisaongororwe sedare rinotonga. Dare reAmsterdam reDzimhosva haritarise iyi nyaya sedare.

Lisin akaisa chikumbiro mukukumbira kupokana nedare. Sekureva kwaLisin dare rakundikanawo kukoshesa simba rekutonga rakapihwa mudare zvichibva pachinyorwa V (1) (e) chinotarisa kana mutongo wekuparadza wekunze uchikurira maitiro ekumanikidza mubairo wehutongi muNetherlands. Dare Repamusoro rakafananidza iro rechokwadi rechirungu neechiFrench chinyorwa cheGungano. Idzi shanduro dzese dzinoita sedzine dudziro dzakasiyana pamusoro pesimba rekutonga rakapihwa mudare. Shanduro yeChirungu yechinyorwa V (1) (e) inotaura zvinotevera:

  1. Kucherechedzwa nekusimbisa mubairo kunogona kuramba, pachikumbiro chebato riri kupikiswa naro, chete kana iro bato rinopa kune anokwanisa masimba uko kuchizivikanwa nekumisikidzwa, chiratidzo chekuti:

(...)

  1. e) Mubairo uyu hausati uchisunga mapato, kana kuiswa parutivi kana kumisikidzwa nemvumo yenyika ine mukurumbira wenyika.

Shanduro yeFrench yechinyorwa V (1) (e) inotaura zvinotevera:

"1. La reconnaissance et l'exécution de mutongo ne seront anoramba, for the partie contre laquelle elle est invoquée, que si cette partie fournit à l'autorité compétente du pays où la reconnaissance et l'exécution sont demandées la preuve:

(...)

  1. e) Que la sentence nest pas encore devenue oblatoire pour les parties ou a été annulée ou suspendue par une autorité compétente du pays dans lequel, ou d'après la loi duquel, the sentence a été rendue. ”

Iyo discretionary simba reiyo Chirungu vhezheni ('inogona kurambwa') inoita kunge yakafara pane iyo French vhezheni ('ne seront refusées que si'). Dare repamusoro rakawana dudziro dzakasiyana muhumwe hupfumi pamusoro pekushandisa chaiko kwegungano.

Dare Repamusoro rinoyedza kujekesa kuturikira kwakasiyana nekuwedzera dudziro yayo. Izvi zvinoreva kuti masimba esarudzo anogona kungoiswa chete kana paine ivhu rekuramba zvinoenderana neSungano. Pane iyi nyaya yaive iri pasi pekuramba ichitaura nezve 'kuparadzwa kwemubayiro weArbitration'. Izvo zviri kuLisin kuratidza maererano nechokwadi uye mamiriro ezvinhu iyo iyo gasi rekuramba haina hwaro.

Dare repamusoro rinogovera zvizere maonero eDare redzimhosva. Panogona chete kuve nenyaya yakakosha zvinoenderana neDare repamusoro apo kuparadzwa kwemubairo wekuyananisa kunobva pazvikonzero zvisingawirirane nezvakarambwa zvechinyorwa V (1). Kunyangwe hazvo dare reDutch rakapihwa simba rekuziva kana paine kuzivikanwa nekusimbisa, zvakadaro hazvishande mutongo wekuparadza mune iyi nyaya. Kuramba kwakaitwa naLisis hakuna mukana wekubudirira.

Mutongo uyu wedare repamusoro unopa dudziro yakajeka nenzira ipi chinyorwa V (1) cheNew York musangano unofanirwa kududzirwa mukati mechiremera chesarudzo chakapihwa kudare panguva yekucherechedzwa nekusimbisa mutongo wekuparadzwa. Izvi zvinoreva, muchidimbu, kuti chete muzviitiko zvikuru kuparadzwa kwekutonga kunogona kudarika.

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