Iyo UBO-rejista: kutya kweSOBO yega?

1. ziviso

Musi wa Chivabvu 20, 2015 Paramende yeEurope yakatora Chechina Anti-Money Laundering Directive. Nehwaro hweDhairekodhi iyi, nyika yega yega yenhengo inosungirwa kumisikidza UBO rejista. Ese UBO's yekambani inofanirwa kuverengerwa murejista. Sezvo UBO ichakwanirisa munhu wese wechisikigo uyo zvakananga kana zvisina kunangana akabata kupfuura 25% ye (share) kufarira kwekambani, isiri iyo kambani yakanyorwa pamusika wekutengesa. Muchiitiko chekutadza kumisikidza iyo UBO ('s), yekupedzisira sarudzo inogona kunge iri yekufunga munhu wepanyama kubva kune vekumusoro vevashandi vekambani kuve UBO. MuNetherlands, iyo UBO-rejista inofanirwa kuverengerwa pamberi paJune 26, 2017. Iyo tarisiro ndeyekuti rejista ichaunza pamwe nemhedzisiro yakawanda kumamiriro ekunze ebhizinesi reDutch neEurope. Kana munhu asingade kushamisika zvisingaite, mufananidzo wakajeka wekuchinja kuri kuuya unenge wakakosha. Naizvozvo, chinyorwa ichi chichaedza kujekesa iro revo ye UBO rejista nekuongorora maitiro ayo uye zvazvinoreva.

2. Pfungwa yeEurope

Yechina yeAnti-Mari Kubvisa Dhijitari chigadzirwa chechigadzirwa cheEurope. Pfungwa iri shure kwekuunzwa kweiyo Directive ndeyekuti Europe inoda kudzivirira vanoshandisa mari nevabati vezvigandanga kuti vashandise iyo yemahara yemahara yemahara uye rusununguko rwekupa mabasa emari nekuda kwavo kwematsotsi. Zvinoenderana neichi chishuwo chekumisikidza kuzivikanwa kwevose UBO's, kuve vanhu vane huwandu hwakakura hwechiremera. Iyo UBO kunyoresa inoumba chete chikamu cheiyo shanduko yakaunzwa neChina cheAnti-Anti Laundering Directive mukuzadzisa chinangwa chayo.

Sezvambotaurwa, Directive inofanirwa kusevenzwa June 26, 2017. Pamusoro peiyo UBO rejista, iyo Directive inodudza hwakajeka hwaro. Iyo Directive inoregedza nhengo dzenhengo kuti dziunze masangano akawanda epamutemo sezvinobvira mukati mekukura kwemutemo. Maererano neDhairekitori, matatu marudzi evatungamiriri anofanirwa kuwana iyo UBO data mune chero mamiriro: zviremera zvine masimba (kusanganisira vakuru vekutarisirana) uye vese veMari Intelligence Units, zviremera zvinosungirwa (zvinosanganisira masangano emari, masangano ezvechikwereti, vanoongorora mabhuku, vanyori, vanyori uye vanopa mabasa ekubhejera) uye vanhu vese kana masangano anogona kuratidza kufarira kuri pamutemo. Nhengo dzenhengo, zvakadaro, dzakasununguka kusarudza rejista yakazara pachena. Izwi rekuti "vane masimba vanokwanisa" harisi kuzotsanangurwazve muDirector. Nechikonzero ichocho, European Commission yakakumbira kujekeswa mune yake yakadudzirwa kuchinjirwa kuDhairekadzi raJuly 5, 2016.

Iyo hushoma huwandu yeruzivo iyo inofanirwa kuverengerwa murejista ndiyo inotevera: zita rizere, mwedzi wekuzvarwa, gore rekuzvarwa, nyika, nyika yekugara uye chimiro uye huwandu hwehupfumi hwekufarira hwakachengetwa ne UBO. Pamusoro pezvo, dudziro yeshoko rekuti "UBO" rakanyanya. Izwi iri haringobatanidzi kudzora zvakananga (pane hunhu) hwemakumi maviri neshanu kana kupfuura, asiwo rakananga kusajeka kusiri pamusoro pe25%. Kutungamira kusingadzoreki kunoreva kutonga mune imwe imwe nzira kunze kwekunge uri muridzi. Uku kudzora kunogona kuve kwakavakirwa pane maitiro ekutonga muchibvumirano chevanogovana, kugona kuve nemhedzisiro inosvika kure pakambani kana kugona, semuenzaniso kugadza vatungamiriri.

3. Kunyoresa muNetherlands

Danho reDutch rekumisikidzwa kwemirairo pabumbiro reUKO rinotsanangurwa zvakanyanya mutsamba yekuenda kugurukota Dijsselbloem yomusi waGunyana 10, 2016. Pamusoro pemasangano akafukidzwa nezvinodiwa kunyoreswa, tsamba inoratidza kuti hapana chero yemhando dziripo dzeDutch. masangano anoramba asina kurapwa, kunze kwekudyidzana chete uye zvese masangano eruzhinji. Zvakare makambani akanyorwa haana kubviswa. Kusiyana nematatu emhando dzevanhu uye zviremera vane kodzero yekuongorora ruzivo mune rejista sevakasarudzwa padanho reEuropean, Iyo Netherlands inosarudza rejista yeruzhinji. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti rejista inodzikiswa inosanganisira zvakashata maererano nemutengo, kugona uye kuvimbika. Sezvo registry ichave yeruzhinji, mana ekuchengetedza zvakavanzika achavakwa mu:

3.1. Wese mushandisi wezveruzivo achanyoreswa.

3.2. Kuwana ruzivo hakuwanikwe kwemahara.

3.3. Vashandisi kunze kwevane masimba akasarudzika (zviremera zvinosanganisira pakati pevamwe Dhipatimendi reDutch, iro Simba Rezvemari ZveMari uye Hofisi Yezvemari) uye neDutch Financial Intelligence Unit inongokwanisa kuwana dheti diki yedata.

3.4. Kana pane njodzi yekubiwa, kupamba, chisimba kana kutyisidzira, mhosva-ne-kesi kuongororwa kwengozi kunoteera, mukati mayo kuchaongororwa kana kuwanikwa kweimwe data kunogona kuvharwa kana kuri madikanwa.

Vashandisi kunze kwevane masimba akasarudzika uye iyo AFM inogona chete kuwana iwo anotevera ruzivo: zita, mwedzi wekuzvarwa, nyika, nyika yekugara uye chimiro uye huwandu hwehupfumi hwekufarira hwakachengetwa nemuridzi anobatsira. Ichi chidiki chinoreva kuti haazi ese masisitendi anofanirwa kuita zvekumanikidza UBO tsvakurudzo anogona kuwana ese ruzivo rwavo runodiwa kubva kurejista. Vachafanirwa kuunganidza ruzivo urwu pachavo uye vanochengetedza ruzivo urwu mukutonga kwavo.

Tichifunga nezvekuti vatungamiriri vakasarudzwa uye iyo FIU vane rimwe basa rekuongorora uye rekutarisira, ivo vachawana mukana wekuwedzera data: (1) zuva, nzvimbo uye nyika yekuzvarwa, (2) kero, (3) Nhamba yebasa revagari uye / kana nhamba yemutero yekuzivikanwa mutero (TIN), (4) chimiro, huwandu uye zuva uye nzvimbo yekubuda kwegwaro raizivikanwa naro kana kopi yegwaro iro uye (5) zvinyorwa zvinotsigira nei munhu aine chinzvimbo. ye UBO uye saizi yeiyo inoenderana (yehupfumi) kufarira.

Zvinotarisirwa ndezvekuti Chamber of Commerce inotungamira rejista. Iyo data ichasvika iyo yekunyoresa nekutumira ruzivo rwemakambani nemasangano epamutemo ivo pachavo. UBO haingarambe kutora chikamu mukuiswa kweruzivo. Uyezve, zviremera zvinosungirwa zvichavawo, nenzira yakati, zvine basa rekusimbisa: vane basa rekutaura kunonyoresa ruzivo rwese rwavainarwo, rwakasiyana nerejista. Zviremera zvakapihwa mabasa munharaunda yekurwisa kupambwa kwemari, mari yemagandanga uye dzimwe nzira dzezvemari uye hupfumi mhosva, zvichienderana nehukuru hwebasa ravo, kupihwa kodzero kana kudiwa kuendesa data rakasiyana nerejista. Izvo hazvisati zvanyatsojeka kuti ndiani achafanirwa kutungamira nebasa rekusimbisa maererano ne (chaiyo) kuiswa kweiyo UBO data uye ndiani (angangodaro) anofanirwa kupihwa faindi.

4. Iyo hurongwa isina zvikanganiso?

Kunyangwe izvo zvakawomeswa zvinodiwa, iyo UBO mutemo inoita senge isina mvura muzvinhu zvese. Kune nzira dzinoverengeka idzo munhu anogona kuona kuti imwe inodonha kunze kwekuyera kweye UBO registry.

4.1. Akavimbika-munhu
Mumwe anogona kusarudza kushanda kuburikidza nehuwandu hwekuvimbika. Nhamba dzekuvimba dzinoiswa pasi pemirau dzakasiyana pasi pechirairo. Iyo yekuraira inoda rejista yekuvimbika-nhamba zvakare. Iyi chaiyo rejista, zvisinei, haizo kuvhurwa pachena. Nenzira iyi, kusazivikanwa kwevanhu vari shure kwekutenda kunoramba kwakachengetedzwa kune imwe nhanho. Mienzaniso yehuwandu hwekuvimba ndeye kuvimba kweAnglo-American uye kuvimba kweCuraçao. Bonaire anozivawo mufananidzo wakafanana neakavimbika: iyo DPF. Urwu ndirwo rudzi rwesimba, iro, kusiyana nerwesimba, rine hunhu hwepamutemo. Iyo inotongwa nemutemo weBES.

4.2. Kuchinjana kwechigaro
Yechina Anti-Money Laundering Directive inotaura zvinotevera nezvekushandisa kwayo: "... makambani nemamwe masangano epamutemo akagadzwa mukati medunhu". Ichi chirevo chinoreva kuti makambani, ayo akasimbiswa kunze kwenzvimbo yenhengo dzenhengo, asi anozoenda pachigaro chekambani kuenda kunhengo yenhengo, haafukidzwe nemutemo. Semuenzaniso, munhu anogona kufunga nezvevanhu vanozivikanwa vepamutemo concoes seJersey Ltd., iyo BES BV uye American Inc. A DPF inogona zvakare kusarudza kufambisa chigaro chayo chaicho kuenda kuNetherlands uye kuenderera mberi nekuita zviitiko seDPF.

5. Shanduko dzinouya?

Mubvunzo ndewekuti European Union ichada here kuendesa mukana uri pamusoro apa kudzivirira mutemo we UBO. Nekudaro, parizvino hapana humbowo hunoratidza kuti shanduko dzichaitika pane ino nguva pfupi. Mukurudziro yake yakatumirwa munaChikunguru 5, European Commission yakakumbira shanduko shoma muDhiri. Ichi chikumbiro hachina kusanganisira shanduko maererano nezvataurwa. Uyezve, hazvisati zvanyatsojeka kana shanduko dzakatemerwa dzichaitwa zvechokwadi. Zvakangodaro, hazvizovi zvisirizvo kutora hanya neshanduko dzakurudzirwa uye mukana wekuti dzimwe shanduko dzichaitwa pane imwe nguva yakazotevera. Shanduko huru ina sezvazviri kurongerwa ndedzinotevera:

5.1. Commission inofunga kuita kuti rejista izere neruzhinji. Izvi zvinoreva kuti dhairekesheni ichagadziriswa panzvimbo yekuwanikwa kwevanhu nemasangano anogona kuratidza kufarira kuri pamutemo. Iko kwavo kugona kwaigona kungogumira kune yakambotaurwa diki data, manyorero zvino anozovaziviswa zvizere kwavari zvakare.

5.2. Komisheni inofunga kutsanangura izwi rekuti "vane masimba vanokwanisa" seinotevera: ".. avo masimba ehurumende ane mabasa akasarudzika ekupamba mari kana mari yemagandanga, kusanganisira vatungamiriri vemitero nevane masimba vane basa rekuferefeta kana kupomhodza kubira mari, kune mhosva dzakabatana. uye mari yemagandanga, kutsvaga nekumubata kana kudziya nekupamba midziyo yematsotsi ".

5.3. Commission inokumbira kujekeserwa uye mukana uri nani wekuzivikanwa kweye UBO kuburikidza nekubatana kwemamitaisi ese enyika yenhengo dzenhengo.

5.4. Komisheni inoenderera mberi ichiti, mune dzimwe nguva, kudzikisa UBO huwandu hwe25% kusvika 10%. Izvi zvichave izvo zviitiko zvepamutemo masangano kungoita isingori yemari mubatanidzwa. Aya ndiwo ".. Intermediary masangano asina chero basa rehupfumi uye anongoshanda kuti asendise varidzi vanobatsira kubva pazvinhu".

5.5. Commission inokurudzira kushandura nguva yekutanga kuti ishandiswe kubva muna Chikunguru 26, 2017 kusvika Ndira 1, 2017.

mhedziso

Kuunzwa kweveruzhinji rwe UBO rejista kuchave nemhedzisiro inosvika kure kumabhizinesi ari munhengo dzenhengo. Vanhu zvakananga kana zvisina kunangana vane zvakawandisa kuti 25% ye (share) mhindu yekambani isiri yakanyorwa kambani, vanozomanikidzwa kupa zvibayiro zvakawanda munzvimbo yekuvanzika, vachiwedzera njodzi yekubirwa vanhu kumeso uye kubirwa; kunyangwe chokwadi kuti Netherlands yakaratidza kuti ichaita zvayo zvese kuderedza njodzi idzi nepese painogona. Uye zvakare, zvimwe zviitiko zvichazogamuchira mibairo yakakura maererano nekucherechedzwa uye kuendesa dhijitari zvakasiyana nedata iri mu UBO rejista. Kuunzwa kweye UBO rejista kungangoreva kuti mumwe anotama kuenda kune huwandu hwechivimbiso, kana chinzvimbo chepamutemo chakamiswa kunze kwenhengo dzenhengo chinobva chazoendesa chigaro charo chaicho kuenda kunhengo yenhengo. Izvo hazvina chokwadi kana izvi zviga zvicharamba zviripo mune ramangwana. Iko kurudziro iripo parizvino yeChina yechina Ani-Mari Laundering Directive haina kana shanduko panguva ino. MuNetherlands, imwe inofanirwa kunyanya kufunga nezvechikumbiro chekubatana kwemarejista emunyika, shanduko inogona kuitika mumakumi maviri neshanu -requirement uye zuva rekutanga rekutanga.

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